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necessary to include in the scheme of analysis additional semantic components which are termed connotations or connotative components.

Let us complete the semantic structures of the words given above introducing connotative components into the schemes of their semantic structures.

Denotative components

Connotative components

lonely, adj.

===>

alone, without company

+

melancholy, sad

Emotive connotation

notorious, adj.

===>

widely known

+

for criminal acts or bad traits of character

Evaluative connotation, negative

celebrated, adj.

--

widely known

+

for special achievement in science, art, etc.

Evaluative connotation, positive

to glare, v.

| to look | +

steadily, lastingly

in anger, rage, etc.

1. Connotation of duration

2. Emotive connotation

to glance, v.

===>

| to look | +

briefly, passingly

Connotation of duration

to shiver, v.

| to tremble

+

[ lastingly ]

+

(usu) with the cold

1. Connotation of duration

2. Connotation of cause

to shudder, v.

[ to tremble |

+

[ briefly |

with horror, disgust, etc.

1. Connotation of duration

2. Connotation of cause 3. Emotive connotation

137

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