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of "native servant"). The explanation is simple: these words have been borrowed by Russian from English and therefore are not cognates of their English counterparts.

It should be taken into consideration that the English proper element also contains all the later formations, that is, words which were made after the 5th century according to English word-building patterns (see Ch. 5, 6) both from native and borrowed morphemes. For instance, the adjective 'beautiful' built from the French borrowed root and the native suffix belongs to the English proper element. It is natural, that the quantity of such words is immense.

Exercises

I. Consider your answers to the following.

1.

How can you account for the fact that English vocabulary contains such an immense number of words of foreign origin?

2.

What is the earliest group of English borrowings? Date it.

3.

What Celtic borrowings are there in English? Date them.

4.

Which words were introduced into English vocabulary during the period of Christianization?

5.

What are the characteristic features of Scandinavian borrowings?

6.

When and under what circumstances did England become a bi-lingual country? What imprint features were left in English vocabulary by this period?

7.

What are the characteristic features of words borrowed into English during the Renaissance?

8.

What suffixes and prefixes can help you to recognise words of Latin and French origin?

9.

What is meant by the native element of English vocabulary?

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