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childish games and childish charm, but about infantile diseases, whereas infantile mind implies criticism.

It is interesting to note that a similar pair of words sunny solar cannot even be regarded as synonyms though semantically they both pertain to the sun. Yet, if a fine day can be described as sunny, it certainly cannot be characterised by the word solar which is used in highly formal terminological senses (e. g. solar energy). The same is true about handy manual, toothy (e. g. a toothy grin) dental (term again), nosy (e. g. a nosy kind of person) nasal (e. g. nasal sounds, voice)1.

Exercises

I.Consider your answers to the following.

1.

Which conditions stimulate the borrowing process?

2.

Why are words borrowed?

3.

What stages of assimilation do borrowings go through?

4.

In what spheres of communication do international words frequently occur?

5.

What do we understand by etymological doublets?

6.

What are the characteristic features of translation-loans?

7.

How are the etymological and stylistic characteristics of words interrelated?

II.Explain the etymology of the following words. Write them out in three columns: a) fully assimilated words; b) partially assimilated words; c) unassimilated words. Explain the reasons for your choice in each case.

Pen, hors d'oeuvre, ballet, beet, butter, skin, take, cup, police, distance, monk, garage, phenomenon,

1 Also see Supplementary Material, p.p. 276.

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