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(such as wine barrels), enclosed areas, storage facilities, and soil.

fumigation. the process of controlling certain pests by exposing them to an atmosphere of toxic gas inside an enclosed area or under tarps.

fungus. a multicellular lower plant lacking chlorophyll, such as a mold, mildew, rust, or smut. The fungus body normally consists of filamentous strands called the mycelium and re- produces through dispersal of spores (plural: fungi).

half-life. the time that must elapse for a pesticide to lose half of its original toxicity or effectiveness.

handler. a person who mixes, loads, transfers, applies, or assists with the application of pesticides; who maintains, services, repairs, cleans, or handles equipment used in these activities; who works with unsealed pesticide containers; or who adjusts, repairs, or removes treatment site coverings; who incorporates pesti- cides into the soil.

hazard. the amount of danger to people or the environment posed by a pesti- cide or other toxic material.

hazardous materials. materials, including many pesticides, that have been clas- sified by regulatory agencies as being harmful to the environment or to people. Hazardous materials require special handling and must be stored and transported in accordance with regulatory mandates.

hazardous waste. a hazardous material for which there is no further use. Remains from pesticide spill cleanup are often hazardous wastes. Hazard- ous wastes can be disposed of only through special hazardous material incineration or by transporting to a Class 1 disposal site.

heat stress. potentially life-threatening overheating of the body under working conditions that lack proper preventive measures, such as drink- ing plenty of water, taking frequent breaks in the shade to cool down, and removing or loosening personal protective equipment during breaks. California regulations require that pesticide handlers receive training on

recognizing, avoiding, and treating heat stress.

histoplasmosis. A disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Symp- toms of this infection vary greatly, but the disease primarily affects the lungs and occasionally, other organs.

hyphae. long, branching filamentous structures of fungi. In most fungi, hy- phae are the main mode of vegetative growth, and are collectively called a mycelium.

inert ingredients. all materials in the pesticide formulation other than the active ingredient. Some inert ingre- dients may be toxic or hazardous to people.

inhalation. the method of entry of pesti- cides through the nose or mouth into the lungs.

integrated pest management (IPM). a pest management program that uses life history information and extensive monitoring to understand a pest and its potential for causing economic damage. Control is achieved, when practical, through multiple approach- es including prevention, cultural practices, pesticide applications, exclusion, natural enemies, and host resistance. The goal is to maintain long-term suppression of target pests with minimal impact on nontarget organisms and the environment.

irreversible injury. a health condition caused by certain exposures to some pesticides and other hazardous mate- rials in which there is no medical cure or recovery.

labeling. the pesticide container label and all associated materials, including supplemental labels, special registra- tion labels, and other manufacturer’s use information. Items that are part of the pesticide labeling are legal docu- ments.

Laws and Regulations Study Guide. a publication available from DPR to assist in preparing for the laws and regulation examination as part of pesticide applicator certification. You may download a copy from DPR’s website or you may purchase a printed copy of this publication from DPR by using the Video/Publica-



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