eyes), respiratory (into the lungs), and ingestion (through swallowing).
self-contained breathing apparatus. (SCBA). see supplied-air respirator.
service container. any container designed to hold concentrate or diluted pesti- cide mixtures, including the sprayer tank, but not the original pesticide container.
short-term exposure. an exposure period established by regulatory agencies to protect workers who must briefly enter recently fumigated areas. This exposure level is usually higher than the threshold limit value set for up to 8 hours of continuous exposure.
signal word. one of three words (DAN- GER, WARNING, CAUTION) found on every pesticide label to indicate the relative hazard of the chemical.
site. the area where pesticides are applied for control of a pest.
skin absorption. the passage of pesti- cides through the skin into the blood stream or other organs of the body.
skull and crossbones. the symbol on pesticide labels that are highly poisonous. Always accompanied by the signal word “DANGER” and the word “POISON.”
slime. a combinations of fungi, algae, bacteria, and other organisms.
spore. a reproductive structure produced by some plants and microorganisms that is resistant to environmental influences.
statement of practical treatment. a section of the pesticide label that provides information on treating people who have been exposed to the pesticide. This includes emergency first aid information.
statement of use classification. a special statement found on labels of some highly hazardous pesticides indi- cating that their use is restricted to people who are qualified through a certification process.
sterilization. a process that kills all forms of life, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses,
and including spores of fungi and bacteria that happen to be present on a surface.
sublethal. pertaining to a dose of a mate- rial, such as a pesticide, that is too low to cause death in the organism to which it is applied.
sublethal dose. a pesticide dose insuf- ficient to cause death in the exposed organism.
supplemental label. additional instruc- tions and information not found on the pesticide container label because the label is too small. A supplemental label is legally considered to be part of the pesticide labeling.
supplied-air respirator. a tightly fit- ting face mask that is connected by hose to an air supply such as a tank worn on the back of the person using the respirator or, when worn with a hood, to an external air supply. Sup- plied-air respirators permit people to enter oxygen-deficient areas or areas where there are highly toxic pesticide vapors.
symptom. any abnormal condition fol- lowing a pesticide exposure that can be seen or felt or that can be detected by examination or laboratory tests.
threshold limit value (TLV). the airborne concentration of a pesticide in parts per million (ppm) that produces no adverse effects over time.
toxicant. a substance that, at a sufficient dose, will cause harm to a living organism.
toxicity. the potential a pesticide has for poisoning an exposed organism.
toxicity category. the four classifica- tions of pesticides that indicate the approximate level of hazard. These categories are indicated by the signal words DANGER, WARNING, and CAUTION.
toxicity testing. a process in which known doses of a pesticide are given to groups of test animals and the results observed.
toxicology. the study of toxic substances on living organisms.