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earthly intrigues. They suffered human frailties without loss of dignity and in their dealings with man they neither humiliated him nor demanded his abasement.

In Greek religion, mortals were fated to die,and were not promised deification.

                                                                                                         From: A Pictorial History of Medicine

11)  Mansukhani  Passes  Away

Between the death and cremation of Mr.Mansukhani there was hardly six hours.That is how fast the Sindhis dispose of their dead. The fire that consumed his body soon reduced itself to glowing cinders, leaving a sprinkling of the ‘ash’ of one, who once was a living person, seen walking round the block of houses in the C.K.Garden completing his daily six rounds of morning stroll. His ash, mixed with bits of  wood charcoal that once incinerated him, will be religiously collected and ceremoniously dissolved in a holy river, or a lake, amidst chanting of mantras for his soul and as a symbol of a once living body, having returned back to the elements and to nature. A cycle of life will begin  for him, somewhere, in some form, it is believed by some. Now he is just a memory and will be remembered once a year with poojas and prayers.   Like a stone thrown into the still waters of a lake, there were momentary ripples, and all is calm again.   The world goes by as if Mansukhani had never existed.

12)  Immortal  Atoms

All living things on earth pass through the cycle of birth, growth and death. They all are made out of the same elements that are found in the soil, water and air.   And when they die, those elements are returned to the earth by the natural process of decay, or  by the artificial method of burning the dead.   The same elements, the same molecules and the same atoms,are utilized once again to create a new life, a new organism, a new body which in turn is  returned to the earth at death, only to be reused again .   This goes on over and over again.   One need not be surprised if a particular atom of carbon from the body of Buddha, in course of time, passed through a termite, a bird, a potato, a pomegranate fruit and even a human.   After all, the natural resources of the earth are limited,even though they appear vast and inexhaustible. All living organisms are built up of the same elements used again and again in endless cycles of birth, growth and death. These elements and atoms will continue to exist as long as the earth exists; as long as the Universe exists.   Immortal atoms!  

13)   Immortal  atoms:  Are  They?

Astronomers say, that stars of mass many times that of the Sun,explode suddenly during their active life.These explosions,are known as “Super Novae”. During this extraordinarily powerful explosion ,atoms of heavier elements are formed and ejected into space in all directions as massive clouds, at enormous speed.   The residual mass of the star shrinks to form what is known as Neutron Star. The force of the explosion crushes the electrons and protons in the star to form neutron particles which, along with the neutrons already present in the star, form a heavy, dense core of neutrons. This body is now much smaller than the original star and rotates about its axis at a high velocity. The atoms of all elements that were present in the star a moment before the Super Nova explosion, are now no more. They are all now only neutrons;  not atoms any more.

Stars much heavier than the Sun, after Super Nova explosion, end up as “Black Hole”  -  a mass of extremely high density of several tons per cubic inch, made up of what astronomers call “degenerate matter.”  No atoms, electrons, protons and neutrons- but just degenerate matter. That is the death of atoms.   Atoms of massive stars are destined to die, but not of stars of moderate mass like our Sun.

14)   A Peep Into Sub-atomic particles.

Every high school student will swear by his text-book that an atom is the smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical reaction. And that it is composed of electrons, protons and neutrons.These are only three of more than one hundred sub-atomic particles known to particle physicists.   Details are tiring and taxing to the brain. But modern physics has reduced sub-atomic particles to interacting quantum fields (whatever it means).   They are not particles like dust particles, a tiny bit of matter, but they are just interaction between energy waves.   All sub-atomic particles are waves of energy which also appear like particles of matter.In reality they are energy waves and not matter, as we understand.   What we think we see and touch are only a perception and not reality.There is nothing like solid, liquid or gas.

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