Education: Learning to Rise above Poverty 12
demonstrates the concepts presented in Ruby Payne’s techniques as well. According to Payne et al. (2006) in order to successfully teach a new concept, the environment must be structured. This includes setting rules and guidelines. If these are provided up front with clear consequences, individuals will become more independent by controlling and regulating their own behaviors. Research suggests that classrooms based on the social-emotional approach are effective in teaching and reinforcing many skills. This is evident in Greenberg et al’s. (2003) research also. Their research indicated that programs that specifically address social and emotional learning have proven effective in improving students’ ability to regulate emotions, make responsible decisions, appreciate the thoughts and feelings of others, as well as improve interpersonal relationships and reduce risky behaviors. All of these benefits combined then lead to improved academic achievement.
Bryant and Maxwell (1999) also reviewed several studies based on social and emotional learning and the outcomes of those studies, all of which researched early intervention programs. The Perry Preschool Project enrolled low-income students with IQ’s between 70 and 85. The results showed that IQ did not increase but when researched again between the ages of 19 and 27, the social factors of the treatment group improved significantly. This included increased graduation and employment rates and decreased crime rates. Another was Chicago’s Child and Parent Centers study. The students in this early intervention program were from high-poverty areas, but IQ was not a consideration in the study. Of the two groups involved, the treatment group showed positive effects in later academic achievement and scores. The same results were found in the Abecedarian Project, and Project CARE resulted in significantly improved