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Education:  Learning to Rise above Poverty 13

intelligence scores (Bryant and Maxwell, 1999).  The evidence of the effectiveness of social-emotional teaching methods is overwhelming.  So, who could argue against them?

One argument against this approach is the fact that the students need to be exposed to this type of classroom for an extended period of time.  In many instances, there was little or no improvement in any skill area if the students were only exposed to the approach or method for one school year (Bryant and Maxwell, 1999).  This was also reiterated by Greenberg and associates.  It was found that long-term programs of this type are more effective.  They should also be well-planned and structured but specifically need to be implemented across grade levels (Greenberg, et al., 2003).  Is that not true for everything we learn though?  Would we only be taught how to read and write at one grade level?  Would our parents only try to teach us good manners in one setting?  Would our employers only teach us how to do part of our job?  The obvious answer is no.

A second opposition would be those teachers who feel that they are already required to do too much in the classroom, and they are only in the classroom to teach the three R’s, reading, writing, and arithmetic.  The only way to address this opposition is to reiterate the lasting effects demonstrated in the research results.  These results are clearly evidenced in such studies as the RC Approach (Rimm-Kaufman, et al., 2007), the Perry Preschool Project, and the Chicago’s Child and Parent Centers Study (Bryant & Maxwell, 1999).  These studies resulted in increased academic achievement in reading and math, as well as increased graduation and employment rates.  This indicates that the three R’s are being taught in these social-emotional programs, and the results are positive.

As a whole, these types of social-emotional programs are supported by pedagogy and theory.  Pedagogy is simply the art of teaching and is based on theories

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