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Education:  Learning to Rise above Poverty 4

From there, secondary, middle, and high schools began to develop.  This growth took place in an effort to address the range of developmental levels of children (Sadker & Sadker, 2005).  

Throughout this portion of history, progress was made due to the continuous development of questions, such as those from Horace Mann, John Dewey, and Jean Piaget, and the list goes on.  A number of theories were formed, but the concept of effective teaching methods seems to be common among them all.  The concept of effective teaching methods includes teaching students by taking into account their diversities and stages of development, and one specific aspect of diversity that continues to plague schools today is poverty.  Why has this topic arisen again and again?  It does so because research indicates that low socioeconomic status directly affects intellectual functioning (Bryant & Maxwell, 1999).

The issue of poverty and education has recently been a controversial topic among educators due to the emphasis placed on the idea of education for all in the “No Child Left Behind” (NCLB) policy signed into legislation.  This was adopted with the intention of improving academic performance of poor students, thus reducing the achievement gap between the students of the wealthy and middle-classes and the lower class (Sadker & Sadker, 2005).  Each and every child is supposed to have equal opportunity to learn under the guidelines of this legislation.  Is this concept feasible or are there forces beyond the control of educators?  Only research can provide the answer, but what do we know right now?  It is a well-known fact that certain characteristics of personalities and abilities are inherited.  On the other hand, it is common knowledge that we can be a product of our environments.  Does one or the other prevail or is it a combination of the

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