The 2005 U.N. World Summit. In September 2005, U.N. reform efforts seemed to gain momentum as heads of state and government met for the 2005 World Summit at U.N. Headquarters in New York. The Summit convened to review the progress made in the fulfillment of the 2000 Millennium Summit goals and commitments made in other earlier U.N. conferences.12 It provided the groundwork for potentially significant changes to the U.N. system, with a focus on strengthening the United Nations through various reforms. The Summit Outcome Document was negotiated by 191 member states and adopted by consensus on September 16, 2005. The document laid the foundation for reforms such as: establishing a Peacebuilding Commission; strengthening the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF); establishing a DemocracyFund; strengthening the SecurityCouncil; improving U.N. system coordination; and creating a new Human Rights Council. Member states also agreed to Secretariat and management reforms, including (1) establishment of an ethics office; (2) greater whistle-blower protection; (3) strengthening oversight capacity; (4) review of all General Assembly mandates over five years old; and (5) full financial disclosure by U.N. staff. 13 14
Recently Adopted and/or Implemented Reforms and the New Secretary-General
U.N. member states have worked toward implementing reform with varied results since the 2005 World Summit. Some reforms, particularly initiatives related to internal oversight, human resources reform, and Security Council enhancement, are stalled or have not been addressed. Other reforms, such as changes to CERF, the establishment of the Human Rights Council, and the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission, are alreadycompleted or are underway. Some management and budget reforms endorsed by heads of state and government at the World Summit were also implemented, including the establishment of a U.N. Ethics Office, enhanced whistle- blower protection policies, and improved financial disclosure policies for U.N.
11 (...continued) which was released on March 21, 2005. A copy is available at [http://www.un.org/ largerfreedom/].
12 The 2000 Millennium Summit was held from September 6-8, 2000, in New York. Its theme was “the role of the United Nations in the 21st Century.” More information on the Summit is available at [http://www.un.org/millennium/summit.htm].
13 CERF was re-launched on March 9, 2006, with an aim of ensuring a more timely and efficient response to humanitarian disasters. The Fund is administered by emergency relief coordinators on behalf of the Secretary-General, and as of January 31, 2008, over $619.1
million has been information is Default.aspx].
and pledged by U.N. member states and NGOs. More
U.N. document, A/RES/60/1, 2005 World Summit Outcome, September 16, 2005.