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was no economic decline in Spanish America.). Chap- ter Tweleve, “Eighteenth-Century Spanish America: Re- formed or Deformed?” looks at the Bourbon reforms and the developing maturity of the Creole societies across the region. Both chapters adroitly cover the larger Span- ish transatlantic imperial world, something that scholars trained in England always seem to do so much beer than U.S.-trained historians of Latin America.

Finally, aer nearly three hundred pages, Brazil makes an appearance. Part V, “Portugal in America,” is a pause in the survey of Spanish America. Other than a few references, especially in the discussion of the early voyages, the text up to this point is a history of Spanish America. In about fiy pages, Part V surveys three cen- turies of Brazilian history. A good overview, Bakewell is obviously less comfortable and less sure of himself in this section. Although other surveys (Keen, for exam- ple) set aside separate sections to discuss Brazil, they also do a much beer job integrating Brazil into the larger story. (Lockhart and Schwartz’s Early Latin America and Burkholder and Johnson’s Colonial Latin America are bet- ter at achieving this integration.)[6] is chapter also re- flects one of the largest weaknesses of the volume, its dis- cussion of slavery in the Americas is much weaker and less satisfying than its treatment of Indian labor.

Part VI, “Self-Discovery: e Nineteenth Century and Beyond,” covers the century aer independence in roughly one hundred pages. Chapter Fourteen, “Inde- pendence,” is a reasonable survey of the complicated re- gional struggles, but it is a bit too detailed for my tastes. It certainly does not have the synthetic strengths of Richard Graham’s Independence in Latin America or Jay Kins- bruner’s Independence in Spanish America.[7] Bakewell then covers the next century in two chapters, one called “Adri in Storms: Caudillos and Penury,” and a second which covers the last part of the nineteenth century and the early twentieth century called, “Calmer Waters and a New Course: Oligarchs and Exports.” is is a lot of ma- terial to cover in one hundred pages, and he faces the same problem we all do when teaching this material– the emergence of so many separate stories and the dif- ficulties of generalizing the way we tend to do for ear- lier centuries. A brief “Epilogue” completes the volume, and Bakewell ends on the issue that so characterizes and defines Latin America–racial and cultural mixture. He concludes by noting that, “Not only was the American Europeanized, but the European Americanized. And in the convergence lies the present and future identity of Latin America” (p. 462).

What sets Bakewell’s text apart from other single-


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volume surveys, and makes it an oddity, is his choice of chronological coverage. His beginning date (1450) is no doubt to provide the background for the Iberian and im- perial expansion that precedes Columbus’ voyage. But why 1450? Why not 1415 (the symbolic beginning of Portuguese expansion with the capture of Ceuta) or 1469 (the marriage of Fernando and Isabel unifying Spain)?- Latin America does not exist until 1492. Why not just begin there? While debate over the beginning date may be quibbling, even more questionable, Bakewell ends his survey in 1930, presumably because of the Great Depres- sion. Aer expressing doubts about his own ability to write about the recent past, Bakewell says, “e study of Latin America over the past half-century is, for me, the territory of political scientists, economists, sociologists, and other social scientists” (p. xv). (I guess that this his- torian has wrien two books that should have been writ- ten by social scientists!) Whatever the intellectual merits of his position, it is hard to imagine what his publisher was thinking when it agreed to this end date. Who will use this book for class? It would be wonderful for a colo- nial survey, but then the last one hundred pages of the book goes unused. One could not use it for a full sur- vey to the present, because it is missing material on most of the twentieth century. In short, it is too long for the colonial survey, and unusable as the text for the survey course that covers post-independence Latin America.

Furthermore, Bakewell’s book will not be very satis- fying for those looking for more cultural history. (e endnotes indicate a very heavy reliance on more tradi- tional social and economic history.) e volume is very heavily Spanish American in its orientation (says the Brazilianist ). Finally, the level of detail in the discussion, at times, may be overwhelming to students in an intro- ductory course. (Although I very much appreciated the careful discussion of the data on mining production in the seventeenth century, for example, one wonders if this is really necessary for the introductory student.) As a point of comparison, Bakewell’s colonial survey will probably be more comprehensible to the introductory student than the rich and complex synthesis in Lockhart and Schwartz.

  • e chronologies and reading lists at the beginning of

each part are also helpful.

In short, this is a wonderful survey of the colonial period, especially the sixteenth century. It provides us with an excellent combination of political, social, and economic history within the larger Hispanic world. Al- though it emphasizes the core regions of Mexico and Peru, it sweeps across other regions to the very periph- ery (with New Mexico making some interesting appear- ances). As a historian of “modern” Latin America, I

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