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program that used the reciprocal teaching strategy with ninth-grade students. He compared the

results of the reading comprehension tests of two groups, one whose instructors used reciprocal

teaching and one whose instructors did not. The group that received instruction with reciprocal

teaching had higher comprehension scores.

Galloway (2003) evaluated research on the effectiveness of using reciprocal teaching to

improve reading comprehension. She used a traditional meta-analysis and reported a moderate

improvement in reading comprehension for teaching using the reciprocal teaching strategy.

Galloway also found that there was no difference between effects for norm-referenced and

experimenter or teacher-generated tests. She suggests that the results of reciprocal teaching are

maintained over time and that instruction using reciprocal teaching can help readers improve

reading comprehension.

In an investigation of meta-cognitive reading strategies, teachers were observed

implementing instruction using two of the four reciprocal teaching strategies: clarification and

summarization (Hess, 2004). Hess reported that students improved the quality of their

discussions of expository text, demonstrated a higher level of critical thinking in their

questioning, and achieved higher comprehension test scores on district norm-referenced tests.

Diehl (2005) studied the effects of reciprocal teaching on fourth-grade students with

low reading skills. Specifically, he looked at students who had difficulty decoding words and

who demonstrated poor comprehension skills. Students relied heavily on their knowledge of

the real world when using the predicting strategy, and questioning and clarification of ideas

were the impetus for group discussions leading to the construction of meaning. Diehl states

that the construction of meaning appeared to result from the interconnectedness of the four

reciprocal teaching strategies.


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