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Questioning continued: “What else will help the articulation? David suggested “Shadow

vowels.” He added, “While it won’t help the eighth notes, it will help final releases.” These are

examples of students taking information they know from previous encounters in the choir and

applying them to the piece they are currently rehearing. In reciprocal teaching, this exemplifies

connecting and is clear evidence that students are synthesizing information and engaging

cognitive and constructivist processes that facilitate their abilities to make meaning (McCarthy,

1987, 2000).

The Senior High School Orchestra: Daniel Abrahams, conductor

The work with the orchestra using reciprocal teaching centered on preparing Overture to

Russlan and Ludmilla, by Mikhail Glinka, arranged for string orchestra by Robert Sieving. The

second of Glinka’s two operas, Russlan and Ludmilla is based on a fairy tale by the Russian

author Alexander Pushkin. Set in 10th-century pagan Russia, the plot is a mixture of fantastic,

romantic, and satirical motifs. Just before her marriage to Russlan, an evil dwarf kidnaps

Ludmilla. To find her, Russlan embarks on a series of adventures. In the end, he does find her,

they are reunited, and they marry. The overture is a popular showpiece for orchestras and is

performed throughout the world. Originally scored for full orchestra, Robert Sieving arranged

the overture for string orchestra, keeping the brilliance and essence of the original.

During the first week of rehearsals, students began to learn the notes and rhythms and

listened to two different recordings. The first was the original arrangement and the second was

the arrangement for string orchestra by Sieving. To prepare the students, and before listening to

the examples, I asked, “What do you think will be similar and different between these two

recordings?” Students were directed to write their answers on a sheet of paper (questioning

looking for a prediction). I then suggested (clarifying): “While listening, look for clues within

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