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soundtrack will enhance or detract from the story?” (predicting). Several students replied for

each: enhancement and distraction. One student stated, “It depends on their choice and if it

makes sense, I may think it works, and others might not.” Students were allowed three minutes

for a question-and-answer period with the author after each presentation (questioning). Several

questions revolved around music choices, and there were many statements as to preferences and

several suggestions of alternative choices. The presenters were able to help clarify their choices

and offer insight to their process for choosing material (clarifying). At the conclusion of the

lesson, I asked (questioning looking for connecting), “How did this exercise enhance your

performance of the piece?” One student replied (summarizing), “It helped me play smoother

because I had to think of more than just the notes.” Another student wrote, “It got me more in

touch with the song. Another stated, “It makes us use our imaginations while we play”


Results and Discussion

At the end of the rehearsal period, we reviewed the data, the videotapes, to identify

patterns and themes. To do so, we exchanged tapes, acting as external auditors to analyze each

other’s rehearsals. Verification of findings was made through triangulation (Plano Clark &

Creswell, 2009), face validity (Kidder, 1982; Plano Clark & Creswell, 2009), catalytic validity

(Lather, 1986) and construct validity (Lather, 1991).

Patterns and Themes

We identified the following patterns:

1. The roles of teacher and student were constantly shifting. It should be noted that all of these

strategies: questioning, predicting, clarifying, summarizing, and connecting, included both the

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