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by Best (1992). As mentioned above, Gardner (2006) claims creativity when children can pose

new problems and ask new questions. There were many instances of that throughout the

rehearsal period. They had opportunities pose and solve problems and to try and experiment in

their journey to learn the Rachmaninoff folk songs and Glinka’s Russlan and Ludmilla


Performance outcome

Since the completion of the data collection, the chorus performed the Rachmaninoff folk

songs with the community orchestra, and the school orchestra played in a national competitive

festival program in Chicago where trophies were awarded for excellence. Separately, the

orchestra received the highest rating and the chorus accumulated accolades from attendees, the

orchestra conductor, and school officials. In both instances, the ensembles performed to high

standards and critical acclaim. We can report with assurance that the repertoire took significantly

less time to teach and prepare, and we attribute that to the influence of reciprocal teaching.

The strategies of reciprocal teaching, such as in the rehearsals described above, lift music

learning beyond just learning notes for a performance to an experience that provides moments of

transcendence for each individual student. Strategies of reciprocal teaching provided frequent

and rich opportunities for students to solve problems, pose problems, question, and challenge. As

one orchestra student said of the experience learning the overture to Russlan and Ludmilla, “It

makes us use our imaginations while we play.”

Future research might include applying reciprocal teaching strategies to classroom music

teaching or teaching in the applied studio. Reciprocal teaching might also be studied in the

context of informal music learning where students must pose and solve problems without the

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