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Musical creativity is the ability to use the tools of music making that are learned in one

context and apply them in new, unique, innovative, and original ways that influence future

musical efforts. Musical creativity is different from musical imagination in that examples of

musical imagination connect to already existing forms. For instance, writing music to accompany

something that already existed is one example. Musical creativity involves the invention of new

forms. Robert Moog inventing the synthesizer is an example of creativity. Free composition and

improvisation are other examples. Musical creativity might also include inventing new

instruments, or preparing a piano, as John Cage did. When school children find new sounds on

the synthesizer or invent a new form or genre, they are engaging musical creativity. Gardner

(2006) claims creativity when children can pose new problems and ask new questions. This

connects well to reciprocal teaching since questioning is a key component. Sometimes the

categories overlap in ways akin to meta-cognition. For instance, inventing notation to document

musical thoughts and ideas combines musical creativity with musical imagination and may

involve the musical intellect as well. Clearly, musical imagination, intellect and creativity do not

function as separate entities; rather, musicians apply them in a meta configuration calling on

each in varying amounts mediated by the content and context of the musical experience in which

they are engaged.

Reciprocal Teaching

Reciprocal teaching involves dialogue or conversation between teachers and their

students. Twenty years ago, Palincsar and Brown (1985) applied a series of classroom

strategies to help students bring meaning to literary text; these strategies are now called

reciprocal teaching. During reciprocal teaching, roles interchange, and the teacher can become

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