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the students demonstrated skill transfer on three out of four tasks similar to but distinct from

the instructional task. Finally, the results observed in the experimental setting were also

observed in the classroom setting.

Two years later, Palincsar and Brown (1984) studied seventh-grade students who

received instruction using reciprocal teaching strategies. Student comprehension was improved

not only in language arts, but in science and social studies as well. “This is an impressive

finding, particularly given the difficulty investigators have experienced getting generalizable

effects of training across task settings” (Palincsar & Brown, 1984, p. 147). Rosenshine and

Meister (1994), in their meta-analysis of 16 studies, conclude that reciprocal teaching is highly

effective for teaching cognitive strategies to improve reading comprehension. The strategy was

effective as long as the quality of instruction was high.

Other researchers, such as Levin (1989), studied the use of reciprocal teaching with

learning-disabled intermediate school students. Levin found that the time needed for

implementation of the strategy was longer than expected. Levin claimed that there were

important gains for some teachers’ students on error-detection tests and Stanford

comprehension tests and asserted that more time was needed to teach using the strategy and for

students to practice with textbooks. He suggested that more teacher instruction, with modeling,

feedback, and coaching, might have brought teachers to a higher skill level and that differences

between the teachers influenced the results. Lindblom (2000) used the reciprocal teaching

strategies with four students with low reading-comprehension skills. Lindblom found that all

the students showed gains in reading comprehension measured by an informal reading


In 2003, Weedman published a descriptive study examining the effects of a reading


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