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To provide insurance against work stoppage due to hurricane or other natural disaster, SPAWAR positioned an identical site set-up about 10 miles from the primary site. This alternate site ensured continuous integration of vehicles and only required the movement of personnel and equipment for it to be operational.

2. Kuwait

The facilities in use in Kuwait are fully mature due to continuous U.S. presence in that nation since the Persian Gulf War in 1991. The JPO had no issues securing sites to conduct vehicle disembarkation procedures and the infrastructure within the country also supported the rapid movement the program required. Many facilities were available for rent and immediate occupation such as at Ali-Al-Salim Airbase, which has functioned as the APOD in Kuwait since the military terminal at Kuwait International Airport ceased operations in 2004. The required port facilities were no different as huge port areas were not being utilized; these facilities were constructed by the U.S. during Operations Desert Shield and Storm. The JPO chose the facility best suited to its needs among the many available at the Kuwaiti port and converted it into a functional support activity by making minimal changes such as installing air conditioners, lighting, and hydraulic lifts. Thus, establishing the RSA in Kuwait was not a significant issue for the JPO and the same applied for facilities in Iraq (D. Hansen, personal communication, 2008, October 15). Although not an issue, the well-positioned facilities aided the timely movement of the vehicles to warfighters.

3. Iraq

The JPO considers Iraq as a mature theater that is lacking some minor infrastructure support. The use of plywood shelters and tents at forward operating bases supports this classification. Therefore, to establish issue points (IPs) and RSAs in Iraq, the JPO took extra measures that included pouring concrete slabs for maintenance bays and erecting sprung shelters. Nine different sites were established in Iraq, each with requirements unique to its location. These sites included Mosul, Tikrit, Al-Taqaddum, Kalsu, Talul, Baghdad, Taji, Balad, and Kirkuk. Of the nine sites, four were established


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