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in engines, transmissions, tires, and axles, it was not a major concern in the source selection decision, demonstrating the program emphasis on procuring vehicles quickly from multiple manufacturers at the expense of long-term sustainability and lifecycle costs.

C.

LITERATURE REVIEW

1.

The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS)

The Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System (JCIDS), which is normally a methodical and sequential process, provides the framework under which all joint, top-driven acquisition programs are conducted. The MRAP program, although rapid and unique in nature, was conducted within this framework, albeit in a highly tailored manner. This section provides an overview of the JCIDS process as it is relevant to the MRAP program.

JCIDS is the most current procedure used by the DoD to articulate warfighter needs and establish a basis for future defense acquisition programs. The JCIDS replaced what was formerly known as the Requirements Generation System (RGS) and, with that, the costly redundancies that each Service required within its own Service-specific stove-

pipe. The capabilities

purpose of JCIDS is to provide and identifying joint needs. This

the guidelines for top-down approach

generating required to decision-making

determines if a required for acquisition (Jones &

capability exists, then McCaffery, 2008, pp.

assigns a resource 569-570).

sponsor

within

the

DoD

Three key processes within the DoD must work hand-in-hand to ensure that warfighter needs are met. As illustrated in Figure 2, they are the requirements process (JCIDS), the acquisition process, and the Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution System (PPBES). To provide systems that meet the needed capabilities, these three processes must be synchronized to support decision-making (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2007, p. 2). This synchronization is complicated by the differing nature of the three processes. While PPBES is calendar-driven, the JCIDS and acquisitions processes are event-driven. In the case of an immediate need, the JCIDS process can

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