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progressed, it also implemented changes based on soldier feedback and design flaws brought to light in the harsh operational environment of Iraq.

The MRAP program also grew and adapted to reflect the changing tactics of the insurgents in Iraq. Even before the end of the first phase of testing, insurgent use of EFPs increased sufficiently to warrant additional survivability measures for MRAP vehicles. The MRAP JPO responded with the MRAP expedient armor program (MEAP), which basically added additional armor to the sides of the vehicles (Hansen, 2008, June 10). The JPO implemented a three-pronged approach to the problem. First, they added additional armor to the existing MRAPs in-theater. Second, the JPO worked with MRAP manufacturers to modify the vehicle designs to allow for quick MEAP installation and to handle additional weight. The additional armor required increasing the gross vehicle

weight rating (GVWR) and upgrading suspension components. industry again with a RFP in an MRAP II competition, with the

Third, the JPO solicited requirement of providing

survivability against IED and EFP MRAP II vehicles, it did not make

attacks. Although the production orders for a

JPO contracted for number of reasons,

and tested to include

the additional size and weight, the diminished threat in Iraq through capability given existing MRAP vehicles by the MEAP program. evolution of the MRAP program (as of this writing), the JPO is another RFP to procure an even smaller and lighter MRAP vehicle.

2008, and the added As the most recent preparing to release This program, called

MRAP All Terrain Light Combat procurement of about 2,000 additional additional funding (Sherman, 2008).

Vehicle vehicles


is expected

to involve

and require an


$3 billion in



The high-profile and politically charged MRAP program has been funded primarily through timely, non-standard methods—namely, supplemental appropriations, emergency appropriations, and reprogramming actions. This is extraordinary because most defense acquisition programs are funded long-term through the PPBES and the Program Objective Memorandum (POM) process and short-term through the base DoD budget. The MRAP program was not included in the FY 2007 or FY 2008 base budget


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