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were procurement actions prior to approval of an APBA, simultaneous developmental testing and production of vehicles, and continuous refinement of performance requirements in response to the evolving threat.

The second broad category enabling the MRAP program rapid execution, which goes hand-in-hand with concurrency, is risk acceptance. The sequential and deliberate defense acquisition framework is designed to minimize risk. The strategy of concurrency

therefore represents the most formed the basis for very

vivid example of risk acceptance in the MRAP

specific

instances

of

risk

acceptance.

For

program and example, by

awarding production of procuring a small

orders prior to threshold and user testing, the PM accepted the risk number of vehicles that were ultimately unusable. In addition, by

using survivability-focused threshold accepted the risk of fielding vehicles operational environment.

testing as that were

a form of source selection, the program unreliable and difficult to sustain in an

Risk acceptance in any situation does not come without a reciprocal trade-off. The MRAP program, therefore, made numerous trade-offs in support of the program strategy. As a first example, the use of multiple manufacturers sped delivery of large quantities of vehicles to warfighters, but it did so at the expense of complexity in sustainment, increased training requirements for Soldiers and Marines, and higher lifecycle costs. As another example, the award of production contracts prior to threshold testing resulted in the procurement of 160 vehicles at a cost of $23 million that were ultimately determined unusable in Iraq or Afghanistan; this trade-off should be considered, however, with respect to the three successful manufacturers that were similarly awarded early production contracts and therefore sped vehicle deliveries to warfighters. Finally, the use of a commercially available solution, as opposed to full- scale development based on thorough analysis of a user-generated requirement, resulted in a vehicle that was adequate, but not ideally suited to the operational environment

In conclusion, the program’s focus on concurrency and risk acceptance, enabled by its unprecedented political support, established the conditions necessary for success in

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