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Essential factors of labor(2)

                          Uterine contraction.

  Labor force            Abdominal muscle.

                                   Levator ani muscle

                                  Bony canal  (pelvis)  (no change)

Birth canal             vulvar, vagina, cervix,

                                 Lower uterine segment

                               Fetal position

Fetus

                               Fetal size

Psychic factors. A high level of anxiety during pregnancy has been associated with decreased uterine activity and with longer and dysfunctional labor.

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