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Report provided to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, April 2011 - page 38 / 45

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Annex D: Glossary

Activate

To artificially trigger the processes that occur when an egg is fertilised

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Molecule which transports energy in cells. It is involved in reactions of the electron transfer chain (ETC)

Apoptosis

Programmed cell death

Autophagy

Where a cell begins to digest part of itself

Backcross

Formally, breeding a hybrid individual with one of its parents. In this context, where a hybrid or mixed race individual breeds with one of its parental types, such as race or strain

Biopsy

Procedure of obtaining cells eg, from an embryo, in order to test them

Blastocyst

A 5-6 day old embryo, with both an outer trophectoderm cell layer and an inner cell mass

Blastomere

A cell of an embryo prior to the blastocyst stage

Chromatin

The combination of DNA and other proteins in the nucleus, which packages the chromosomes

Chromosome

Structure in a nucleus that carries DNA

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