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Report provided to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority, April 2011 - page 39 / 45

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Chromosomal inheritance

The process for passing on the DNA in the nucleus to subsequent generations

Comparative genomic hybridisation array

Screening method to detect abnormal chromosomes

Cytoplasm

The jelly-like substance that fills a cell and contains the structures within it, including mitochondria

Cytoplasmic hybrids

An adult cell or nucleus that has been fused to a cell with its nucleus removed. The cells can be from different individuals or species

Cytoplasmic transfer

The technique of injecting cytoplasm from a donor egg into a recipient egg, for example one that has compromised mitochondria

De novo mutation

A spontaneous new mutation (as opposed to one that is inherited)

Depolymerise

To break a polymer, composed of many similar molecules (whether chemicals or proteins), into its constituent parts

Electron transfer chain (ETC)

The chain of chemical reactions that produce energy in a mitochondrion

Embryogenesis

The process by which an embryo forms and develops

Embryonic stem (ES) cells

Cells, derived from an embryo and cultured in a laboratory, that have the potential to form all different cell/tissue types

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