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332.There are several specialised projects (or component of a project where vocational and technical training are provided. The ARISE project, initially supported by UNDP and mow by UNICE (under different nomenclature), for example, started in 1998 aims to improve the educational and vocational training facilities available to street children as a contribution to the overall fulfilment of their rights. This will involve the provision of learning opportunities in nonformal settings. ILO-IPEC is another good example of such initiative. A good number of NGOs in the recent years have started providing different types of technical training either on their own or in association with Government in order to develop the skills of the target groups.

School discipline

333.One of the objectives of the National Plan of Action for Children, 2005-2010 is to help teachers to ensure that no corporal punishment is used against children and that discipline in school respects the dignity of the child.

334.All the consultations at Divisional levels including those of children organized for collecting and validating information in connection with this Report informed that the awareness of all stakeholders has increased, the school management committees are being increasingly involved in operation of the schools and the teachers more student-friendly than before resulting, among others, notable reduction of corporal punishment and improved discipline in the primary and secondary educational institutions.

335.Efforts by government, NGOs and civil societies towards enhancing physical facilities, increasing the number of teachers, providing different types of training, strengthening school management committees etc are the important factor behind improvement of discipline in the schools. Improvement of school discipline is a vital part of all categories of training and awareness building provided to stakeholders, starting from parents and care givers to management committee members.

Literacy rate

336.The rate of literacy of population 15 years and above is estimated at around 52 percent in 2004, a significant improvement over a rate of around 30 percent since 1990 (BBS). Generally, the rate of literacy is much higher in urban area (68 percent), compared to rural area (47 percent) and gender wise, females are less literate (46 percent) than males (57 percent).

337.The MICS 2006 shows that nationally, 70 percent women aged 15-24 years were literate, which is more or less in conformity to national statistics estimated by BBS. The rate in rural area was 68 percent and urban area 75 percent; very low in slums (38 percent) and tribal areas (55 percent). This rate varies between the Divisions, from 63 percent to 74 percent. There was strong co-relation between literacy and education and socio-economic status of the household.

338.The Government in collaboration with NGOs are implementing different interventions to make the literacy programme more effective and targeting to serve more than 1.66 million people under Total Literacy Movement (TLM) course.

Financing of education sector

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