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392.In January 2000, there were four children under 15 years serving life sentences in Tongi KUK (Child Development Centre). As on 25 August 2007, there was only one such child in Jessore KUK. The District Legal Aid Committees formed with the objective to provide legal support to distressed women and children are more active than ever before.

Physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration

393.Consistent with the underlying aims of the Children Act and Rules, certified institutes and approved homes are run in such a way as to prepare children as far as possible to return to society when their period of detention ends. This is ensured through ongoing monitoring of each child’s situation, a system of education and vocational training and the work of probation officers.

394.For the first 14 days after the start of a child’s detention, his/her mental disposition, conduct, aptitude and other matters are closely monitored for the purposes of formulating an effective treatment plan. A separate file is created for each child where this information is recorded by the Superintendent of the institution where the child is kept. In practice these rules are not properly complied with in Bangladesh.

395.The Children Rules, 1976 require to be provided to children in detention with primary education and vocational training facilities. The Tongi Child Development Centre (KUK) has an on-site school offering education up to Grade 5. Arrangements can also be made for children to continue their education up to a higher level outside the Centre. Vocational training in car maintenance, welding, tailoring, carpentry and electric house wiring is available. There is also the provision under the Children Act, 1974 of children detained in a certified institute or approved home for release, on license, to live outside the institution on certain conditions with a person who will give him/her a vocational training. A non-formal basic education scheme has been introduced in nine central jails and nine district jails for which children are eligible.

396.Probation officers are guided by the Juvenile Court or, where there is no Juvenile Court, by the Court of Sessions. Their duties include maintaining contact with the child through regular visits, advising, assisting and befriending the child and, where necessary, making efforts to find him or her suitable employment.

D.Children in situations of exploitation, including physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration

Economic exploitation including child labour

Child labour

397.Because of a number of reasons including widespread poverty many children enter the labour force, some at a very young age. A qualitative study by ILO-IPEC and UNICEF found three factors that cause child labour in Bangladesh:

Push factors (extreme poverty, death of earning family member, parents separation, being abandoned, natural calamities, adult migration or unemployment)

Pull factors (children accept cheap wages and other conditions favourable to employer)

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