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with various modifications, is the dominant gear used in offshore waters.  A basic otter trawl consists of a heavy mesh bag with wings on each side designed to funnel the shrimp into the codend or tail.  A pair of otter boards or trawl doors positioned at the end of each wing hold the mouth of the net open by exerting a downward and outward force at towing speed.

The two basic otter-trawl designs used by the Gulf shrimp fleet are the flat and the semi-balloon trawls (Klima and Ford 1970).  The mouth of the flat trawl is rectangular in shape, whereas the mouth of the semi-balloon design forms a pronounced arch when in operation.

Try nets are small otter trawls about 12 to 16 feet in width that are used to test areas for shrimp concentrations.  These nets are towed during regular trawling operations and lifted periodically to allow the fishermen to assess the amount of shrimp and other fish and shellfish being caught.  These amounts in turn determine the length of time the large trawls will remain set or whether more favorable locations will be selected.

Until the late 1950s, most shrimp vessels pulled single otter trawls ranging from 80 to 100 feet in width (Idyll, 1963).  Double-rig trawling was introduced into the shrimp fleet during the late 1950s.  The single large trawl was replaced by two smaller trawls, each 40 to 50 feet in width, towed simultaneously from stoutly constructed outriggers located on the port and starboard sides of the vessels.  The port trawl was towed about 150 feet in back of the starboard trawl to prevent fouling.  The advantages of double-rig trawling include: (1) increased catch per unit of effort, (2) fewer handling problems with the smaller nets, (3) lower initial gear costs, (4) a reduction in costs associated with damage or loss of the nets, and (5) greater crew safety (Idyll, 1963).

In 1972, the quad rig was introduced in the shrimp fishery, and by 1976 it became widely used in the EEZ of the western Gulf.  The quad rig consists of a twin trawl pulled from each outrigger.  One twin trawl typically consists of two 40-foot trawls connected to a center sled and spread by two outside trawl doors.  Thus, the quad rig with two twin trawls has a total spread of 160 feet versus the total spread of 110 feet in the old double rig of two 55-foot trawls.  The quad rig has less drag and is more fuel efficient.  For some designs, a lower opening reduces fish bycatch (David Harrington, personal communication).

Although the industry continuously works to develop more efficient gear designs and fishing methods, the quad rig is still the primary gear used in federal waters.  In recent years, the skimmer trawl has become a major gear in the inshore shrimp fishery in the northern Gulf.

3.1.2  Social and Economic Descriptions of the Gulf Shrimp Fishery

3.1.2.1  Overview

A general description of the fishery is found in Section 3.2.1 above.  However, this section presents additional detailed information considered to be important to a thorough understanding of the social and economic aspects of the fishery, and thus to the analysis of the management alternatives being considered in this amendment.  Unless stated otherwise, the descriptive information presented in the sections below are with regard to conditions as they existed in 2002, since this is the most recent year for which complete data are available to generate the necessary information.

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