and 3) communities that exhibit at least three of the attributes noted above(Group 3). Within each of those groups, there are seven, fifteen, and two communities, respectively. The identities of communities falling into each group are listed in Table 4.9 below. Communities in the first group would be the most vulnerable (i.e. least able to adapt), followed by those in the second and third groups, respectively. Note that, according to IAI’s research, Dulac, Empire, Abbeville, Golden Meadow, Venice, Chauvin, Cameron, Montegut, Houma, and Delcambre, Louisiana were determined to be primarily involved with marine fisheries, while Boothville and Grand Isle, Louisiana were determined to be secondarily involved with marine fisheries. Specific attributes of each community are developed in more detail in Shrimp Amendment 13 (GMFMC 2005).
4.4 Administrative Environment
4.4.1 Federal Fishery Management
Federal fishery management is conducted under the authority of the Magnuson-Stevens Act (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.), originally enacted in 1976 as the Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The Magnuson-Stevens Act claims sovereign rights and exclusive fishery management authority over most fishery resources within the EEZ, an area extending 200 nautical miles from the seaward boundary of each of the coastal states, and authority over US anadromous species and continental shelf resources that occur beyond the EEZ.
Responsibility for federal fishery management decision-making is divided between the Secretary and eight regional fishery management councils that represent the expertise and interests of constituent states. Regional councils are responsible for preparing, monitoring, and revising management plans for fisheries needing management within their jurisdiction. The Secretary is responsible for promulgating regulations to implement proposed plans and amendments after ensuring management measures are consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Act and with other applicable laws summarized in Section 10. In most cases, the Secretary has delegated this authority to NMFS.
The Council is responsible for fishery resources in federal waters of the GOM. These waters extend to 200 nautical miles offshore from the nine-mile seaward boundary of the states of Florida and Texas, and the three-mile seaward boundary of the states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The length of the GOM coastline is approximately 1,631 miles. Florida has the longest coastline of 770 miles along its Gulf coast, followed by Louisiana (397 miles), Texas (361 miles), Alabama (53 miles), and Mississippi (44 miles).
The Council consists of seventeen voting members: 11 public members appointed by the Secretary; one each from the fishery agencies of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida; and one from NMFS. The public is also involved in the fishery management process through participation on advisory panels and through council meetings that, with few exceptions for discussing personnel matters, are open to the public. The regulatory process is also in accordance with the Administrative Procedures Act, in the form of “notice and comment” rulemaking, which provides extensive opportunity for public scrutiny and comment, and requires consideration of and response to those comments.
Regulations contained within FMPs are enforced through actions of the NOAA’s Office of Law Enforcement, the USCG, and various state authorities. To better coordinate enforcement