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Clinical/Experimental vs Observational design

Non-experimental/Observational: The population is

   observed without any interference by the investigator.

For example, in a study to see the effect of smoking, it is impossible for an investigator to assign smoking to the subjects. Instead, investigator can study the effect by choosing a control group and find the cause and relation effect. Some examples  are-

Cross-sectional study

Cohort study

Case-control study

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