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{WHOLE NO. 809.




heavy heads of grain. Even in autumn the yel- low cars of corn, bowing low from the parent Btalk, will acknowledge the value of your labor.

does not give so large a crop, we think, as some of the coarser varieties, but is sure, and yields well.


HENRY S. RANDALL, LL, D., Editor of the Department of Sheep Husbandry.


  • P.


  • H.

    T. BBOOBS,

  • T.

    0. PBTEBS,

  • C.

    DEWEY, LL, D.,

  • L.



THB RTJBAI, tfaw-ToBKifc is designed to be unsur-


  • unique

devotes various

in Value, Purity, and Variety of Contents, and










to the supervision

6f its








RUBAL an eminently Practical, Scientific

Reliable Guide on all the important and other (Subjects intimately con-

nected with the business of those zealously advocates. As a FAMILY

whose interests it JOUBNAL it is emi-

nently Instructive and that it can be safely

Entertaining—being so conducted taken to the Homes of people of

Intelligence, taste and discrimination. Horticultural, Scientific, Educational,

It embraces more Literary and News




















17* For Terms and other particulars, see last page.

A complete preparation would be to full plow with the common and the subsoil plow, stirring the soil (but not bringing it to the surface) to the depth of fifteen or twenty inches. This would permit the water to soak away early in the spring, and the grain could be sown in sea- son and good condition.

White Norfolk, a large turnip that produces a very abundant crop. If sown too early is apt to be spongy and hollow. White, and rather flat. Excellent for mucky soils.

Early White Butch is an old and very popular variety the world over. White, ratherflat;ten- der and sweet if not too old.


Red Tankard, a long turnip a good deal thought of by some, but not generally popular.

THE Turnip is a convenient as well as a very useful crop. If anything fails by reason of bad weather, poor seed, or bad management, the turnip is just the thing to fill up the rows, or the otherwise vacant ground, and also help ake up the necessary store of winter feed. Of ourse, we would not insinuate that the reader obliged to resort to the turnip in consequence >f any lack of good management, or proper cul- ure, any more than we would charge any fault upon ADAM for eating the forbidden apple. Every man knows that EVE was the transgres- sor, and every farmer is confident when any- ;hing goes wrong that it is the seed or the season hat is altogether to blame for the unfortunate result. There is a good deal of self-satisfaction in having a clear conscience about these matters, though such a state of mind is not apt to lead to

The YELLOW FLESHED TUBNIPS are more solid and generally sweeter than the white fleshed sorts, and usually keep better. Some think they are not so sure for a crop with ordi- nary culture.

Orange Jetty —A handsome, round turnip; kin pale orange, flesh yellow, juicy, sweet and lender, with very littlefiber,so that when cooked it has the appearance of jelly. Afinevariety for table use.

Robertson's Golden Ball is an excellent turnip from medium to large in size, round and smooth, paleish yellow, tender and good every way, and with good culture produces an excel- lent crop.


THE barley crop promises to turn out ex- tremely well in this section. The spring was favorable for early sowing, and during the growth of the crop the rains have been frequent enough for its wants. This is cheering to the former, for it will probably be one of the most profitable crops he will grow this year, and the indications are that it will be in the future one of the most important of our grains. In the com- mon rotation of corn, spring grain and wheat, it seems to leave the soil in better order for wheat than oats or spring wheat, and as it is cut earlier it leaves more time toprepare the soil for

fall seeding.



There are two varieties grown in this section— the two-rowed, and the'four or six-rowed. Of these the two-rowed is coming most into favor. Although sown at the same time, it is from a week to ten days later in ripening. It comes right after the wheat harvest,-and thus does not crowd the fanner as much as if both crops were in together. The berry of this sort is larger and heavier than that of the other, so that it more than makes up in weight what it loses in num- ber of kernels on the head. This is no doubt owing partly to the greater space between the kernels on the head, and to the longer time it takes to come to maturity.

While riding through the country it is the exception and not the rule to see a piece of bar- ley entirely tree from oats. The two grains take to each other so kindly that it is sometimes hard to tell which the crop had better be called. And if in every neighborhood some one or two, or three even, would take pains to raise a clean crop, they could dispose of it for seed to their neighbors at high prices. Any one, however, may have clean seed, if he will take the needful pains. When the crop is thrashed in the fall place the grain at one end of a long and clean barn floor. Then fiing it with a shovel as far as you can toward the other end. The quantity thrown at once should be small, and pains mus be taken to scatter the grains well. What falls the farthest from you will be heavy and clean barley, which will gladden your heart when you come to sow it the next spring. It is worth while for every farmer who intends to sow bar- ley next spring, to try this method of getting his seed. It can be done some rainy day, will not cost anything, and will be money in his pocket when he comes to sell the next crop. Putting the seed into a strong brine will not take out the oats thoroughly, and besides is much more work

There is another thing worth taking into con sideratlon, m connection with the raising barley after corn or other hoed crops, and thai

is the effect that thorough hoeing and cultiva- ting will have on the succeeding grain crop, field that is half-plowea, half-planted* and then just scratched over with hoe and cultivator,—

enough to make the weeds mad and gro' fast,— is in poor condition for barley to follow, compared with one that has been well tilled. Keep the cultivator at work. Summer-fallow the ground as well; as make a crop of corn. Smother the rich sod with fresh dirt till it d cays, and out of its ashes another year shall ris

mprovement. A man that is right all the time, of course needs no change or improvement, and as for the weather, and such things, it is beyond the control even of the wisest.

In a previous number of the RUBAL we made some remarks on the culture of turnips, and gave descriptions of a few of the best Swedes, and also promised descriptions of some varieties f the English or common turnip. The com- mon turnip may be sown any time during July and thefirsthalf of August. Two pounds ofseed is usually sown to the acre, though where a drill

used one'half this quantity is enough. It is always best to sow in drills, 6O that the hoe can be used with advantage. The drills should be far enough apart to admit of the cultivator, and after hoeing, the plants should stand about six

nches apart in the row.

American farmers seldom give the turnip a fair chance. It is a kind of make-shift crop, and assigned to places left vacant by accident, or where nothing else will grow. Hoeing the turnip is by many considered waste labor, and of course in this manner of treatment very satisfac- tory results are not to be anticipated. The tur- nip should have a good, clean, and rich soil. On new land a failure is hardly possible, and on well enriched soil it is the exception. Almost any except a virgin soil needs enriching for a turnip crop, and fresh manure is better than that which is rotted. This is not exhausted by the turnip, but the soil is left in excellent condi- tion for the next crop. We say nothing about the philosophy of the matter, but our experi- ence is that a piece of ground thoroughly ma- nured for turnips and kept well cleaned will produce the next season a better spring crop than though the same amount of manure was applied in the spring. Perhaps it is in better condition to be used by the roots, and it is no doubt more thoroughly mixed with the soil.


The White Globe, of which we give an engrav- ing, is one of the hardiest of the white varieties, It grows deep in the soil, and therefore is not affected by early frosts. Bulbs round and white.

Purple-Top Strap Leaf. This is a favorite variety in this country, both for field and gar- den. It is becoming a favorite in England, where it is known somewhat, we believe, as th Red American Stone. It grows pretty much above ground, skin purplish violet where ex- posed to the light, flesh white and tender.



TeUow Aberdeen

is an excellent

yellow turnip, globular, with solid yellow flesh.

green above ground, An excellent variety

for a general crop. form, &c.

The engraving


Yellow Malta is a small, excellent turnip for table use. Bulb round, flattened above and concave below, with a small tap-root proceed- ing from the center of the hollow. Flesh yellow, tender and sweet


THE haying and the harvest will soon be done, and then among the labors of farmers the chief- eat will be tofitthe soil for fall seeding. Where it is intended to sow wheat after spring grainB, it is of great value to plow soon. Turn up the ground as soon as the crop is off, and let the air, and rain, and dewB, have their effect on it. Don't let it lie and bake hard in the midsummer sun and the weeds and grasses grow. There is great difference between a soil that is freshly plowed to receive the seed, and one of like quality that is turned up two weeks previous and submitted to the action of the elements. Thefirst,when harvested, is lumpy, and seems cool and sour in comparison. The seed that you sow and the weeds will come up together from it, and it will sooner crust over and return to its first condi- tion than the other. The early plowed may be left in the furrow until time tofitit for Bowing. The lumps will all have slackened, and will fall in pieces at the touch of the harrow. The young weeds that have had just time to start, will all

be killed, and the soil appear warm and light, better fitted to receive the seed. Early plowing and top dressing with manure go well together, and is a far better system than putting th'e ma- nure on first and then plowing. If the manure is too long for top dressing, it 1B better to put it

HENBT 8. BANDALL'S " MOSS BOSE," GOT by Mr. HAMMOND'S Sweepstakes, dam bred by Mr. HAMMOND.

on to meadows or reserve it for use another year, than to spend time in putting it on to your barley or oat stubble, and then have just time to finish plowing before hoeing.

Some prefer to plow shallow once, and later plow again and deeper, putting manure on after the first plowing. One, and that a thorough plowing, is, however, less labor, and probably better also. For, if the first plowing is not more than four or five inches in depth, yet after the ground is loosened and thrown up, it will measure six or seven inches down to the hard earth, and when the plow is put in the second time it will go but an inch or two deeper than at first, so that the aggregate depth is not as much as could be obtained by one thorough plowing. Besides, the upper soil, from which One crop has sprung, had better be well turned under, and that which is deeper brought up for the succeeding grain.

Now is the time, also, to make war on the thistles. Their red banners are out, and their ranks are thick and strong. We must charge them vigorously with scythe and hoe or their heads will grow gray in triumph. When stand- ing in pastures and meadows, mowing them in full blossom evidently injures their constitu- tions. Where stock is fed the thistles may be killed by dropping salt on them, and many fields might be cleared of them by some pains-taking that way.

He has made and published the results of some very minute and careful experiments in the pro- duction of wool, and has bred wool of different qualities. Mr. GOFFE is an experienced and 6killful practical manufacturer. Mr. ELLIS has been a successful breeder of sheep, an extensive purchaser of wool, and is now largely interested in the manufacture of wool of different qualities. Mr. TALLMAN is the owner of several thousand coarse wooled sheep. It will be conceded, on all sides, that a more able and disinterested com- mittee could not have been selected. Their report would have been prepared some time since, but was delayed by the illness of two of their number.

The thanks of the Association and of the pub- lic are eminently due to the committee for their full and lucid report.. We consider the facts dis- closed by this experiment in scouring to be very important. The table deserves the attentive study of all persons concerned in growing or manufacturing wool. The highly useful lessons which it teaches will be commented on by us hereafter.

HON. HENBY S. Growers'1 and

RANDALL, President N. Y. Sheep Breeders' Association :


The Committe entrusted with'the duty of awarding the premium offered by Hon. D. D. T. MOORE "for the fleece of one year's growth, or thereabouts, which on being cleansed, shall be found to give the greatest weight of wool, in proportion to its time of growth and to the live weight of the animal," submit to your Association the following Report:

On the 11th day of Hay last, at Canandaigua, fifteen sheep were shorn in competition for Mr. MOOBB'S pre-


mium—five of them rams, ten ewes.





Cotswold, were


of these The lib-




$50 for

the heaviest


of wool,




of Committee of If. Y. State Sheep Breeders? and Wool Grower^ Association, on Scoured Fleeces.

tested by having it cleansed manufacturers, excited much

as wool is cleansed by interest among breeders


sheep and the public


The fifteen sheep

that competed



is to be presumed,


by their several

owners to be as good as could be pro-

THE competitors for the MOOBE Premium on scoured fleeces at the New York State Sheep Fair at Canandaigua, May 11th, had their ani- mals sheared in the presence of a committee appointed by the Association to supervise that process, and also in the presence of the officers of the Association and hundreds of other spectators. The fleece and carcass of each sheep were care- fully weighed by chosen gentlemen of the high- est standing in Canandaigua, in presence of the same witnesses, and the weights publicly de- clared on the spot. Thefleecesat the close of the shearing were immediately taken charge of by JOHN MALTMAN, Chairman of the Local Committee and of the Committee on Shearing, who, by directions of the Executive Board, for- warded them by Express to A. J. GOFPE, Super- intendent of the Syracuse Woolen Manufactur- ing Company for cleansing. Mr. GOPFE was requested by the President to cleanse them as he would do for manufacturing purposes, and to take great pains to prevent any admixture of the fleeces. How strictly these requests were com- plied with will appear from the subjoined report.

The Executive Board considered the occasion of sufficient importance to appoint an awarding committee of the highest standing, and one which would fairly represent both the growers and manufacturers of different kinds of wool. Hon. GEOBGE GXDDES, the Chairman, is an experienced fine wool grower, and few gentle- men of New York ha\e the reputation of pos- sessing an equal combination of scientific and practical knowledge in husbandry, or of con- ducting or supervising experiments in any of its departments with as much attention and accu- racy. The last remark applies equally as well to Mr. SWEET, who ia a farmer and civil engineer.

duced ;

and it is quite


that in the main they


correct in this opinion, though

in gome


the result

of the cleansing


to the


The true value of a fleece of wool must depend on

its quantity test of only

and quality. one of these

Mr. MOOBB has asked for a points—quantity. It is per-

haps well point, for

that he confined himself by eo doing a breeder of

to this single Cotswolds, Mr.

GAZLEY, was induced to compete. fact that the sheep that produce the

The well known coarser wools give

fleeces that finer wools,

shrink much has led many

less in cleansing than the persons to believe that, of

clean wool, the so called mutton breeds produce or quite as much, in proportion to their weight,

nearly as the

fine wooled on the Fair

sheep. The opinion was freely expressed Grounds that the Cotswold would win the

prize. It is had not been

to be regretted that the mutton breeds more fully represented, that the compar-











We will venture to express the trials more of this kind of sheep

hope that in will compete,

future and if

necessary to induce this competition, that premiums be offered for the fleeces not only of fine wooled sheep, but for the fleeces of the breeds raised principally for mutton. This might involve, perhaps, three classes, viz., fine wooled sheep, long wooled and middle wool- ed sheep.

We feel confident that Mr. MOOBB'S plan of having the true weight of fleeces determined by positive tests must lead to important result* in instructing both wool grower and wool manufacturer, and lead both branches of the common interest engaged in produ- cing the clothing of our people to a better under- standing,of the facte Involved. The wool grower de- sires to get the most he can for the produce of his flock—the manufacturer as naturally desires to get as much wool for a given Bum of money as he can. How- ever disposed the parties may be to deal fairly by each other, they will fell to come to an understanding, mu- tually satisfactory, unless they are both in possession of a knowledge of the facts in the case. It may be true that much labor and cost is involved in cleansing

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