THE Nemophila, is a delicate, yet beautiful and showy flower. We have been a little careful in recommending them to our readers, because sometimes in a dry spring they do not succeed well, especially if the seed is sown late, so that they are in bloom during the hot and often ex- tremely dry weather of July. They like a cool, damp soil, and if a little shaded, all the better. In conversation with Mr. DOWNING, who loves flowers as well as fruit, a few weeks since, he remarked that his NemophUas had been splendid the present spring, and thought they should be more generally known and cultivated. With this opinion we entirely agree. During the monthy>f June we had nothing among our an- nuals that could compare with the Nemphilas for beauty. They are almost or quite hardy, and self-sown seed will often produce the finest flowers. To make sure of flowers sow in cold frame ar hot-bed and transplant early, though seed sown early in the open ground often suc- ceed admirably.
One of the varieties longest known is N. in- signis, it having been discovered, by DOUGLAS in California, in 1882. The flower is of the most delicate light blue that can .be imagined, this color 'gradually becoming lighter toward the center, which is nearly white. For many years we have never missed this delicate annual from our collection. There is a striped variety of insignis, blue and white, and a variety edged with white called Marginata.
N. maculata is the largest and most showy of the Nemophilas, It was also discovered in Cali- fornia by Mr. HARTWEG, during his missipn in search of new plants for the London Horticul- tural Society. It is of procumbent habit, like insignis, and the whole plant is clothed with short hairs, as shown in the engraving. The flowers grow from the axils singly, on stalks longer than the leaves, and are of the size of the engraving, whitish in their ground color, and each lobe of the corollo marked with a deep violet blotch, which gives the flower a peculiarly showy appearance. This variety, we think bears the hot sun better than any other. We never saw anything more beautiful than a mass of these flowers that came up in our Tulip beds this spring from self-sown seed.
N. atomaria is very much like If. insignis, ex- cept in the color of the flower, which is white, dotted with small purple spots, so dark that, at a little distance, they appear black.
NEMOFHUA ATOMARIA OCCI—TA.
if. atomaria ocuiata is a* very pretty variety, the outer edges of the petals being light blue, growing gradually paler towards the large, dark purple eye, which gives the flower a marked appearance.
IV. discoidalis degans is a rich, velvety marooD, bordered with white, a new and fine sort.
EDS. RURAL NEW-YORKER:—At the Summer Meeting of the Western New York Fruit Grow- ers' Society, recently held in Rochester, a ques- tion was put as to whether there was any NEW light on the subject of pear blight, but appa- rently without any satisfactory answer. It is quite possible that there are various causes for this disease, and which may take a long time yet before being satisfactorily accounted for or thor- oughly understood. All the fancied theories propounded on the subject seem too frequently shaken to atoms, and experienced pear growers place little faith in them, hence, anything new, even if offered probonopublico, would be looked upon with suspicion. I, therefore, shall not offer anything new, —for I " made a note on't" several years ago, and perhaps others have done the same, but I do not ever remember seeing it published. It is simply this, viz., the best time
to ascertain the premonitory symptoms of the disease, as well as to investigate them.
If those interested in pear culture will walk around| and inspect their trees early in the morning, after extreme atmospheric changes, they will in all probability soon find their patients, and they may readily be distinguished. Wherever the tree is diseased, there will be, so to speak, an unnatural look of moisture about the limb, frequently extending several inches. If you happen to be on the spot at the earliest stages of the disease and closely examine the parts affected, small globules of sap will be found exuding from [the bark, and sufficiently numerous to allow of their uniting and forming into drops, and these, in turn, when overcharged, give way and roll down the limb, and thus the bark is finally saturated with the exuded sap to the extent previously mentioned. As the tem- perature increases the moisture evaporates, leav- ing a glutinous (substance both within and without the bark,'and which, though not easily defined, is certainlygof a pestiferous character, and hence the fearful^ results.
It may be that the various theories propounded upon the subject have some connecting link with the disease, but how far the application of disinfecting materials, either to root or branch, may tend.to modify the disease, must be tested by experiments of those interested. ^On preferring to|the last minute made in regard to temperature, I find a difference of 24 degrees frbmBprevious noon to 6 o'clock A. M. the fol- lowing'morning, at which latter hour the diB- ease [was noticed as above stated, and if an opinion were -hazarded should certainly look upon the lowest point of temperature as an indication most to be feared, and which the sense^of touch when applied to the trees at the extreme points '©f heat and cold would help to explain. But enough, my primary object being to attract the attention of pear growers to what the writer styles the*premonitory symptoms of the disease, that it may be more thoroughly
investigated the present season. Rochester,;july 11, 1866.
CULTIVATION :0F THE BLACKBERRY.
SOIL.—The blackberry delights in rich, rather moistsoil. It would be almostimpossible to geta soil too rich. We have seen a portion of a black- berry patch receiving the wash of a barn-yard, and the canes grew to an immense size, and pro- duced the largest berries we have ever seen, while the quantity borne waB almost incredible.
PREPARATION OF THB SOIL.—The soil should
be deeply plowed and trench-plowed in the fall,
By trench-plowing the soil is deepened and a portion of the subsoil is brought to the surface, where'it is'subjected to the ameliorating influ- ences of the frost, air and sun. In February or March the ground should be plowed, and the sub-soil or lifting plow used, which breaks up the subsoil without bringing any of it to the surface. We are satisfied from our own experi- ments that this preparation of the soil will be amply rewarded by the increased amount of fruit produced.
TIMB AND MANNER OF PLANTING.—The best season for planting the blackberry is autumn, if the soil is in a proper condition. The black- berry commencs growth very early in the spring, and if disturbed at this period by transplanting, is very liable to die. None of the small fruits so imperatively demand planting in the fall or very early in the spring. If the plants can be set out early in March, or in the first opening of the spring, it will answer. But if the planting is delayed, it will be at a sacrifice of a large por-
tion of the plants.
The plants should be set out in rows eight feet apart, and the plants should be set two feet apart in each row. Give the ground between the rows good culture the first season, and the second keep all the weeds down not working deeply between the rows. Strawberries may be grown between the rows the first two years if preferred. Let the plants come up thickly between the rows, but cut off with a hoe, even to the ground all suckers that come up between the rows, treating them as weeds. The plants coming thickly in the rows, form a kind of a hedge, the canes mutually sustaining one another thus rendering stakes and trellises and the trouble of tying unecessary. We have prac- ticed this system with great success, and those who have seen our patch in fruit say the yield was enormous. There 1B no care or labor re- quired in training by this method. Those who go to the expense of procuring stakes and set- ting them, and tearing their flesh to pieces in
tying up the canes, would avoid the trouble after trying the plan we recommed.
PRUNING.—The only labor required by this method of treating the blackberry is in pruning. This is done is summer. When the plants send up the canes four or five feet high, go over the patch with a corn-knife and cut off the tops of all the canes to the height of about four feet. This will cause them to throw out laterals, upon which the fruit is produced. The plantation must be gone over several times during the sea- son, as new canes are raising themselves, and their tops must be cut off as before recommended. If the laterals get too rampant and in the way, as they will, they must be shortened in. The only implement required for this work is a corn- knife, and one man will prune 6everal acres per day in this manner.
I would particularly recommend that after the plantation is established the ground between the rows should not be disturbed. . It will break the roots, and cause ah immense amount of suck- ers to put forth and greatly weaken and lessen the productiveness of the bearing canes. The best plan is to spread a heavy mulching of straw, or, what is better, coarse manure between the rows, thus keeping down the weeds, render- ing the soil moist and enriching it at the same time.— f. J. Colman, before the Horticultural So- ciety.
SUMMER PRUNING OF GRAPES.
THE California Farmer gives, in a communica tion from J. J. Walker of Los Angelos, the fol lowing statement:
"I will relate one instance of the effect of summer pruning. A few years ago I saw at one of our wine presses a lot of grapes, among which were many clusters entirely white; others that were slightly colored, and many that had berries of all the different shades of color from a green- ish white to a dark purple. The grapes were of more than average size, extremely tender, not unpleasant to taBte, but deficient in acid sugar and firmness. The pile looked like a family of mulattoes. As the winemaker could afford no explanation of this phenomenon, I in quired where the grapes were grown, and soughi a solution of the mystery by an examination of the vineyard, and by inquiries of the owner, The vines were twelve years old, of the common variety, planted at the usual distance apart, and had grown vigorously from the time of planting, and were ofgood height from the ground. There had been a heavy growth of canes on the vines that season, owing in part to the heavy rains of the winter previous, 1861-2, so as to interlock and cover the field. About the time the berries had attained their growth, and juet as they were beginning to take color, the owner, in order to
RECIPE FOR BREAD, CAZES, &c.
EDS. RURAL NEW-YORKER :—I thought per- haps a few of my cooking recipes might be acceptable to some of the readers of the RURAL, so I will send some, and with them the inquiry how to make Graham Crackers:
POTATO BREAD.-Boil some potatoes until thoroughly done, mash them fine; add to them the water they were boiled in with yeast and flour, make into a sponge and let it rise over night; then mold up and let it rise the second time before putting in the tins for baking, and you will have good bread.
FRIED POTATOES.-Boil your potatoes until done, peel and mash them fine; make them out into cakes like biscuit; spread some flour over them and fry them brown in lard. Gravy left from ham, or some roast meat, is very good to fry them in.
PANCAKES FROM BROKEN BREAD.—Break up the bread fine and soak it over night in sweet milk; add eggs and flour to give it consistency.
S«DA BISCUITS.—To two quarts of flour take
give the grapes a better opportunity to ripen four teaspoonfttls of cream tartar, two of soda; and acquire sweetness, went through the vine- one pint of sweet milk, and half-a teacupful
far up fast from from there, is not, tivated, and by, bearing whenever the manure for tion of our soil—either and occasional to tell on the necessary; while caution in its use, the only course. is as the tree orchards too much, too little manure. discriminate as you for safety, roots solved bones, marl, much mote useful; and in trees. compost—according to —Dr. KennicoU. neighboring their likely with as some suppose, of your to large trees, "plowing or plant constituents trees. grow MANURE FOB TBEES, &c. WHO ever knew corn or meadow land too highly manured ? I never did. Who has seen rhubarb aud currant bushes too liberally sup- plied ? I should like to know. But manure for such gross feeders may be all right, and often The idea on which most of these are based is that of producing a scent so disagreeable as to drive away the fly; but the old experimenters recall the capacity of the canker-worm moth, and the squash beetle to ignore the most repul- sive obstructions of this kind when stimulated by their instinct to deposit their eggs. Pine sawdust, either clear, soaked in the urine of cattle, or In the ammoniacal liquor from gas works, scattered over the bed just before the appearance of the plant, at the rate of a bushel to ten square rods; guano sprinkled along the rows and the plants twice during the season, unleached ashes used in the same manner; these have given satisfactory results to some growers. Scalding water poured from a common watering pot through a hole the size of a pipe-stem, along the drills near the roots of the plants, and re- peated three or four times during a season, is said to be efficacious. It is obvious that the practical value of such a remedy must be con- fined to a very small area of land.—J. H. Gregory. or without manures will do much more hurt than good—so the growth of the plant. It is true that some seasons the injury is most marked previous to the bottoming of the onion, but I have seen beds injured at every stage of their growth, and in one season about half of the crop was destroyed by the maggot at the close of the season after the onions had been pulled. Various remedies have been proposed, but of these it may be said that they are not practical on a large scale. them from below. The roots are in the way of the plow. And here I note another mistake. You pile the manure around and near the bodies of your trees, when the roots to feed on it are no longer there! If your tree is twenty feet high, the best feeding roots may be twenty feet if it is a tender healthy growth, and help sustain large crops of fruit. * And mineral _atters may be still more useful; for you can no longer plow deep to bring animal manures may come in, to keep up a DISEASE OF ONIONS. The onion maggot is hatched from the eggs of aflywhich are deposited in the plant very near the surface of the ground. Its presence may be detected in the crop when very young by the sudden turning yellow and falling over of the plant, when, if the attempt is made to pull it, it will usually break off near the surface, and on squeezing several very small maggots will pre- sent themselves. Some writers state that the fly deposits its eggs only at an early period in trees. THE onion corp is sometimes severely injured by a disease resembling mildew. The tops of the leaves die and the whole plant is more or less covered by patches of this white blast. From the effects of it the onions almost cease their growth, and the crop finally obtained is small in size. This disease in seme sections is known by the name of "rust." It is more frequent in extraordinary wet seasons, and is more common on old beds than new. The best remedy yet known for old beds is to run the plow a little deeper, and thus mix in a little new soil. the the tree! perhaps Interlocking with roots fast the crops taken from between the trees, a specific reason. In a large propor- virgin soil, the young tree, well cul- Place it under," wants is concerned. Leached ashes, powdered or dis- yard with every fruit tree, great or its entire abandonment, is As a rule you give young and your old bearing ones And in either case do you should, or give or withhold or air-slaked lime, may be and these should be given Barn-yard enough; sort yields of fruit, will begin and then vegetable and are deficient always the best sort for of your don't and manure, or your soil. Here fat manure manure But, by in the plow too etc, suds self ness, to four tained well as bug. Young hill, repeated ing when the had was both in driving of the previous sprinkling. Whale the best for this purpose, using about them away. It should be applied several and always after a rain has washed off the WE found it next to impossible last year to protect the young cantaloupe vines against the presistents attacks of the black and the striped the kind of seeds that will come up what we get REMEDIES AGAINST INSECT^. them for, instead of all coming up petunias, we shall look out in season for our next year's stock, and advise our friends to do likewise.— Ohio Farmer. THB PEACH CROP.—A late number of the Utica Herald Bays:—" We learnfroma gentleman who has recently looked through the peach orchards in the western part of the State, that the peach crop about Rochester will average from one-fourth to one-half a crop. About Seneca and Cayuga lakes the average will be perhaps lees than half a crop. At the head of Senaca lake, in the vicinity of Frost's nurseries, the crop is good, many of the trees bending under the weight of fruit. This poirft is some 600 feet higher than the lake. The section where peaches are thus bearing abundantly is smalL" pods, mark such as are most desirable for form and color, and when the seed is ripe, gather it, mark the paper enclosing it with name, color, &c, and put it away in a dry place. Follow up this practice all through the season, as the dif- ferent varieties go out of bloom; also, when you visit among your friends and find varieties which you have not, ask your friends to allow you to take a few seeds, for which they will gen- erally feel complimented, and in this way you will have a stock of seeds which will not turn out at the coming up like the experience of the child in Scripture, who when he asked for bread received a stone, and for fish was treated to a serpent; or what is equally unsatisfactory—put dependence on seeds which never germinate. Last spring we received a large assortment of flower seeds, and having the nicest soil for a flower bed, told wife we would blaze out in great style. We made the beds and raked them as fine as muck, wife put in twenty kinds of seeds, and we waited in high hope. By-and-by our seeds began to come up, and showed mighty thrifty plants, whereat we felt glad. But as they grew apace, we remarked that all had a great similarity, and finally we found they were aU petunias I and we had not sowed a single petunia in the lot. The secret of it was, that last year petunias had gone to seed on that spot, and the seed had lain in the ground all winter, and now came up to greet us with its new life of sturdy thrift, while our adopted pets forgot to come up at all! Maybe all the other flower seeds turned to petunias, just as some folks think wheat turns to chess. But as we prefer The only way to be sure of what you get, and to have pure, fresh seeds, is to save them your- SAVE YOUR OWN SEEDS. We see that other remedies are suggested, and, among them, one in an English journal, that the common elder bush scattered among the vines will keep off all bugs usually infesting them. But we do not believe it. We have often tried similar appliances and found them all to be worthless. Try the whale oil soapsuds; and if this substance cannot be obtained, use the com- mon soap in the same proportion.—GermanUnon Telegraph, yard, clipping off enough of the ends of the canes so as.to open a space between rows to permit ventilation and allow the rays of the sun to reach the ground. The vines being in a luxu- riant state, immediately threw out numerous new branches from the clipped canes, with new and fully developed, but rapidly growing leaves The phenomenon was fully and satisfactorily explained. When the berries needed thrifty and well developed leaves, to collect heat, light and other elements from the air, and elaborate the sap, so as to furnish color, sugar, etc., they had been deprived of them, and the vines were al- most exclusively engaged, and the sap consumed in forming leaves." them gallons of water. This soap can be ob- at the agricultural stores, generally, as some of the drug and grocery stores. Now, as the flowers are ripening their little or no effect. Eventually soap- applied, which seemed to do the busi- radishes planted close around the applications of ashes in the morn- dew was on, strong aloes water, away and oil soap is one pound keeping times, effects ' ing. ting candy height. them as they boil; of lard or butter. Racine, Wis., 1865. It should be covered to keep off the flies. some rose-water, and, when it becomes as marmalade, put into pots. Boil them To COLOR BROWN,—Boil butternut shucks in soft water, or use hemlock bark to make a dye. Either will give a pretty brown shade on woolen goods. The depth of your color depends on LOW strong you make your dye. and then CURRANT MARMALADE.—Take some ripe red currants, pick them, and squeeze out the juioe from some of them. Put to it some juice of raspberries; then put to this the whole currants, boil them gently, then, when they begin to break, put in an equal weight of sugar boiled to How TO DRY SWEET CORN.—When the corn is in good condition for eating, the grains being fully grown, boil a quantity of ears just enough to cook the starch, and then let them cool and dry a few hours, and then shell or cut off the grains and spread them In the sun till dried. The best way to dry the corn is to nail a piece of cloth of very open texture on a frame, which, if two feet wide and five long, will be of a con- venient size to handle. If the corn is spread upon this cloth it will dry quickly, without sour- GINGER WINE.—Boil together, for half an hour, seven quarts of water, six pounds of sugar, two ounces of the best ginger, bruised, and the rind of three good-sized lemons. When luke- warm put the whole into a cask, with the juice of the lemons, and a quarter of a pound of sun raisins; add one teaspoonful of new yeast,, and stir the wine every day for ten days. When the fermentation has ceased add half an ounce of isinglass and half a pint of brandy; bung close,. and in about two months it will befitto bottle. ELDERBERRY WINE.—Elderberries can be made to produce excellent wine, allowing to a ten-gallon cask forty pounds of fruit, forty pounds of sugar, and a quarter of a pound pf tartar. When elderberry wine is desired for a warm cordial it is made in the following man- ner :—Twenty-five pounds of fruit are to be boiled for an houj in eleven gallons of water; and along with it, tied in a piece of linen, an ounce of allspice and two of ginger. Forty pounds of sugar being put into a tub, the boil- ing liquor js strained over It, pressing the fruit quite dry; and a quarter of a pound of crude tartar, or cream tartar, is then added to the liquid. When it has stood two days In the tub, it may be removed to the eask, treated as for sweet wine, sn the usual manner, and bottled in March following. When to be drank, a portion of it heated with some sugar. GINGER CRACKERS.—One quart of molasses; three-quarters of a pound of butter; one teacup of sugar; four teaspoonfuls of cinnamon; one tablespoonful ginger; one teaspooful of soda, and flour enough to make a good dough. Bake quick. CURRANT CAKE.—One cup of butter, two of sugar; three eggs; one cup of water or milk; a small teaspoonful of saleratus; a little grated nutmeg, and a cup of currants. How TO MAKE CURRANT WINE. — Press the- juice from the currants, and to every quart of it,, add four pounds of sugar, and three quarts of water, which if previously turned over the pressed currants, will add to the strength of the wine. Put into a keg which should be full, and some of the wine kept to fill it as It works off. After it has ceased working it should be bunged up, and not disturbed at least for 6ix months, when it may be drawn off and bottled, or put into a clean keg. It is better when a year or two old, than when first drawn. This same recipe- we have used for elderberry wine, omitting one pound of sugar to the gallon, and also for grapes with success. The elderberry was called when three years old not inferior to port, and the grape wine was as clear and sparkling as cham- pagne.— Working Farmer. OCEAN CAKE.—TO one cup of milk add two cups of powdered sugar; one half cup of butter; the whites of five eggs, well beaten; three cups of flour; two teaspoonfals of cream tartar, and one of soda. Flavor to your taste. with a MRS. MATTIE MTTBRAY. together, mashing skim them, put in mosquito as thick net-