EATON'S PATENT EXTENSION LADDEE.
EVEBT person having occasion to use long ladders is aware of the difficulty of erecting them, and the strength required to take them down without injury to the ladder. The above engraving shows two extension ladders, one closed and the other extended. It is simply two ladders, the upper one running on the rounds inside the standards of the lower one, and held in its position by means of the iron clips and rope, as ahown in the engraving. To extend the ladder, turn the crank on the lower ladder until elevated to the desired height, where it is re- tained securely in place by means of a hook. It is light, strong, not liable to get out of order, and, can be stored in the wood-house where it is at all times ready (in case of fire,) for instant use.
From the testimony of prominent citizens in this city, who have them in use, and our own knowledge, we have no hesitation in pronounc- ing this ladder superior to any other with which we are acquainted for picking fruit painting buildings, and the various purposes requiring the use of long ladders. This improvement was
patented duced to
in March last, and is
now being intro- information con-
cerning it TODD, Jr.,
may be Ontario,
obtained by addressing A. Wayne Co., N. T., who will
ment in this
USES OF ICE.
IN health no one ought to drink ice-water, for it has occasioned fatal inflammations of the stomach and bowels, and sometimes sudden death. The temptation to drink it is very great in summer; to use it at all with any safety the person should take but a single swallow at a time, take the glass from the lips for half a minute, and then another swallow, and so on. It will be found that in this way it becomes disagreeable
itself may be taken only without injury,
as freely as
but with the
advantage in dangerous forms broken in sizes of a pea or bean,
of disease. If and swallowed
freely as practicable, without crushing between the teeth,
much it will
chewing often be'
efficient in checking various and has cured violent cases
kinds of diarrhoea, of Asiatic cholera.
A kind of cushion of powdered ice kept to the entire scalp, has allayed violent inflamma- tions of the brain, arrested fearful convulsions induced by too much blood there. In croup, water, as cold as ice can make it, applied freely to the throat, neck, and chest, with a sponge or cloth, very often affords an almost miraculous relief, and if this be followed by drinking co- piously of the same ice-cold element, the wetted parts wiped dry, and the child be wrapped up well in the bed-clothes, it falls'into a delightful and life-giving slumber. All inflammations, internal or external, are promptly subdued by the application of ice or ice-water, because it is cenverted into steam and rapidly conveys away the extra heat, and also diminishes the quantity of blood in the vessels of the part.
A piece of ice laid on the wrist will often arrest violent bleeding of the nose. To drink any ice- cold liquid at meals retards digestion, chills the body, and has been known to induce the most dangerous internal congestions. Refrigerators constructed to have the ice above, are as philo- sophical as they are healthful, for the ice does not come in contact with the water or other contents, yet keeps them all nearly ice cold. If ice is put in milk or on butter, and these are not used at the time, they lose their freshness and be- come sour and stale, for the essential nature of both Is changed when once frozen and then thawed.—HaWs Journal of Health.
WHY SHOULD BOOTS BE POLISHED.
BRIGHTLY polished boots are cooler in warm weather and warmer in cold weather than dull and dusty boots; for in warm weather they re- flect the sun, which dusty and dirty .boots ab- sorb ; and in cold weather the clean boot does not allow the warmth of your foot to radiate freely, whereas the unclean boot does. Clean, bright boots are consequently more comfort- able, as well as respectable, both in warm weather and cold. Not only will different sub- stances, as iron and wood, gtye out heat or take it in, more or less, but the same substance radi- ates heat more or less actively as it is bright or dull, rough or smooth. Now ditty boots are rough as well as dull. They have a surface, of many little hills and valleys, so that in truth there is more surface for the heat to pass through either way. As a, rough surface is a large surface, more heat from within and with- out always passes through dull and dirty boots than polished ones.
THE HAKVBST TIME.
WHAT YOUNG PEOPLE OUGHT TO KNOW.
1. Come Autumn, crowned withripenedgrain, And Truita of rich - est fla. vors, With notes of joy
r O u r h e a r t s g r a r t s a n d v o i
g ' r g r e e s s t r i k e l i e c h i m e , T h e z'r
g r b a r v e s t t i m e ,
THE best inheritance which parents can *:lve their children is the ability to help and take care of themselves. This is better than a hundred thousand dollars apiece. In any trouble or diffi- culty, they have two excellent servants in the shape of two hands. Those who can do nothing, and have to be waited on, are helpless and easily disheartened in the misfortunes of life. Those who are active and hardy meet troubles with a cheerful face and easily surmount them. Let young people, therefore, learn to do as many things as possible. Every boy should know how, sooner or later—
1. To dress himself, black his own boots, cut his brother's hair, wind a watch, sew on a but- ton, make a bed, and keep the clothes in order.
2. To harness a horse, grease a wagon, and harness a team.
bar-vest time, The har
s ATA J J~J
The harvest sun, how bright at noon His richest radiance throwing! And, Oh! how bright the harvest moon, As she with joy is glowing, And fain with us would strike the chime, The harvest time, the harvest time.
Our land is broad, we've every dime, And all some gift possessing; And all enjey the harvest time, That makes each gift a blessing; Then let our hearts and voices chime, The harvest time, the harvest time.
To carve and wait on table.
To milk the cows, shear the sheep, and drees
a veal or mutton.
5. To reckon money and keep accounts cor- rectly, and according to good book-keeping rules.
6. To write a neat and appropriate, briefly- expressed business letter, in > good hand, fold, and superscribe It properly,! and write con- tracts.
7. To plow, sow grain] and grass, drive a mowing machine, build a neat stack and pitch hay.
A NEW EXPLOSIVE POWDEB.
A PRUSSIAN, named Reichen, has invented a substitute for gunpowder, which bids fair to create a revolution as well in the pleasant and peaceful pursuit of field sports as in artillery practice. He 1B at present in Quebec, where has been placed at his disposal the laboratory of the arsenal, in order to experiment and to manufac- ture the new ammunition. The invention con- sists in the substitution for powder of a certain kind oi paper, which is not explosive until dip- ped In some solution. The new material canv
therefore, be transported without danger. It Is lighter than powder, being only seven-tenths of the weight. Its power is greater, and it 1B a less perishable article. Experiments made in Que- bec in the presence of officers, with Enfield rifles,
In connection with this
we find the following similar one in an paper: —"A new gunpowder is said
English to have
It claims to be three times one-half cheaper than that
as explosive, and yet now in use, leaving,
safely (resin when
in magazines, its two component parts and chlorate potash) being incombustible separate."
WATBR-PBOOF BOOT SOLES.—If hot tar is applied to boot soles, it will make them water- proof. Let it be as hot as the leather will bear without injuring it, applying it with a swab, and drying it in by the fire. The operation may be
repeated two if necessary.
or three times during the It makes the surface
winter, of the
leather quite hard, so that it wears longer, as well as keeps out the- water. Oil or grease softens the sole, and does not do much in keep-
ing the water out
It is a good
plan to provide
the soles by tarring, as before they are wanted' as horn, and will wear unprepared.
they will then become, to wear, almost as firm twice as long as those
A LABGB TBLESCOFB.—The University of Chi- cago possesses the largest, and it is believed the finest telescope in the world. Heretofore Har- vard College has held thathonor, but the "Clarke Telescope " is to the Harvard as 84 to 21—more than one-half larger. Its cost was 111,187 for the object glass, and $7,000 for the tube and mounting. The focal length of the telescope is twenty-three feet. It.is to the honor of America that this fine instrument is the product of Ameri-, can skilL A meridian circle, the instrument with which the chief work of an observatory is done, has been ordered. It is the gift of Mr. W. S. Gurnee, late of Chicago, now of New York.
A NEW boiler for steam engines has been patented by an Irish inventor of the name of Elson. It consists of a number of cast-iron bot- tles, twelve inches in diameter and six feet in length, set' in ovens, and connected in their steam and water spaces. Forty-two of these evolve a power of sixty horses. The advantages claimed are the cheapness of construction, dura- bility and freedom from the danger of explosion. The inventor is said to have applied his boiler with complete success.
ON THE DIBBCTION OF THE WIND.—Professor Henneqey, at the last meeting of the British As- sociation, stated, as the result of his observa- tions with au improved anemometer, that the wind rarely blows in a perfectly horizontal direction. The deviations from that direction, although usually small, are sometimes very re- markable, and follow each other in such a way, especially during strong breezes, as to indicate a species of undulatory motion in the wind.
To CUBE PIUSS-T^RA F. SCUDDEB writes the BUBAL: " W ^ turnips will cure the piles. Pre; vention is better than cure. Let the afflicted carry it in their pockets. A very simple thing will make a man sick; why not a simple thing
cure him ?
HINTS TO BATHERS.
AT this warm season, when bathing is so popu- lar, it will be well to observe the following prac- tical hints, which we take from the London Sixpenny Magazine.
"On first plunging into cold water there comes a shock which drives the blood to the central parts of the system. But Immediately a re-action takes place which is assisted by the exercise of swimming, producing, even in water of a low temperature, an agreeable warmth. The stay in the water should never be prolonged beyond the period of this excitement If the water be left while the warmth continues, and the body Immediately dried, the healthy glow over the whole surface will be delightful.
" To remain in the water after the first re-ac- tion is over, produces a prolonged chilliness, a shrinking of the flesh, and a contraction of the skin, by no means favorable to health or enjoy- ment ; for it is only in water thoroughly warmed by the summer heats, where we may bathe for many hours with impunity.
" Certain precautions are necessary. Moder- ate exercise, by summoning into action the powers of the system, and quickening the circu- lation, is betterthan inactivity. We should never go into water Immediately after a meal, nor while the process of digestion is going forward. Nor should we plunge into the water when violently heated, or in a state of profuse perspiration, such imprudences are often fatal, especially if the water be unusually cold. If too warm, the temperature of the body may be reduced by bathing the wrists, and wetting the head.
"Before meals rather than after, and espe- cially before supper, are proper seasons for bath- ing. The heats of the day are to be avoided, but in hot weather, a bath is useful to cool the blood, and secure refreshing sleep. If in the middle of the day, a shaded place should be chosen, or the head protected from the sun by being kept wet, or by wearing a straw hat, as is practised by the fashionable French ladies at their water- ing-places.
"The sea is the best place for swimming. !Owing to the greater specific gravity of salt water than fresh, the body is more buoyant in it, as are other substances. A 6hip coming out of salt water into fresh, sinks perceptibly in the water. The difference is nearly equal to the weight of the salt held in solution.
" The bottom should be of hard sand, gravel or smooth stones. Sharp stones and shells cut the feet—weeds may entangle them. The swim- mer must avoid the floating grass and quicksand. The new beginner must be careful that the water does not run beyond his depth, and that the current cannot carry him into a deeper place, also that there be no holes in the bottom. As persons are ever liable to accidents, cramps, &c, it is always best that boys or girls should be ac- companied by those who are older than them- selves, and who will be able to save them In any emergency."
THE HUMAN EYE.
THB language of the eye is very hard to coun-
You can read in
the eyes of your com-
panion, while you talk, whether
hits him, though bis
not confess i t
There is a look
a man shows
going to say a good thing, and a look when he has said It. Vain and forgotten are all the fine offices of hospitality, if there be no holiday in the eye. How many furtive invitations are avowed by the eye, though dissembled by the lips.
heard no important remark, but if in sympathy with the society, he Is cognizant of such a stream of life as has been flowing to him through the eye. There are eyes which give no more admis- sion into them than blue berries; others are liquid, and deep wells that men might fall into •
and others are oppressive
eyes, eyes full
There are asking and of faith—some of good
and some of sinister omen.
AH INDUSTRIOUS MECHANIC.
PETER THE GREAT once passed a whole month
at the forges of Muller, during which time, after giving due attention to affairs of State, which he never neglected, he amused himself with seeing and examining everything in the most minute manner, and even employed himself In learning the business of a blacksmith. He suc- ceeded so well that one day before he left the place he forged eighteen poods of iron and put his own particular mark upon each bar. Th bayers and other noblemen of his suite were em-
ployed in blowing the bellows, stirring the coals, and performing the other duties of a blacksmith1
8. To put up a package, build a fire, mend broken tools, whitewash a wall and regulate a clock.
Every girl should know how,—
To sew and knit
To mend clothes neatly.
To make beds.
To dress her own hair.
To wash the dishes and sweep the carpets.
To make good bread and perform all plain
cooking. 7. TO keep her rooms, drawers, and closets in order.
To work a sewing machine.
To make good butter and cheese.
To make a dress and children's clothing.
To keep accounts and calculate interest
' 12. To write, fold and superscribe letters prop-
"Three kopecks, or an altina," answered Muller.
"Very well, then," the Czar said, "I have earned eighteen altinas."
Muller brought eighteen ducats, offered them to Peter, and told him that he could not give workingman like his majesty less per pood.
Peter refused the sum, saying, "keep thy ducats; I have not wrought better than any other man. Give what you would give to another. I want the .money to buy a pair of shoes, of which I have great need."
At the same time he showed him his shoes,
13. To nurse the sick efficiently, and not faint at the sight of a drop of blood.
14. To be ready to render efficient aid and com- fort to those in trouble, and in an unostentatious way.
15. To receive and entertain visitors, in the absence or sickness of her mother.
A young lady who can do all these things well, and who is always ready to render aid to the afflicted and mitigate the perplexities of those around her, will bring more comfort to others and happiness to herself, and be more esteemed, than if she only knew how to dance, simper, sing, and play on the piano.—Home Monthly.
which had been
full of holes.
broken, and were again accepted the eighteen
BEWARE OF A PREVALENT VICE.
altinas, and he used to
bought him a pair of shoes, which show with much pleasure, saying,
One of these bars of iron forged by Peter the Great, authenticated by his mark, is still.to b seen at Istia, in the forge of Muller. Another similar bar is preserved in the cabinet of curiosi ties in St. Petersburg.
BOTS, if by a few earnest, heartfelt words you may be induced to keep clear of a vice now fear- fully prevalent in this country, it will be worth more to you than a huge sum of money. We refer to the use of profanelanguage. It is almost
the nor men,
only sin profit
that has neither excuse, pleasure Alike offensive to God and good
A CAPITAL BATH.
AN open window, with the direct rays of th< sun coming in, will be good for the little one On a hot summer day, to lay it down near tb< window, quite nude, and let It lie for some mln utes where the rays of the sun may fall upon its skin, will give it new life. There is a vital rela- tion between^sunshlne and a vigorous human being. Seclusion from sunshine is one of the greatest misfortunes of civilized life. The same
c&use which makes potato-vines white and sickly when grown in dark cellars operates to produce the pale, sickly girls that are reared in our parlors. Expose either to the direct rays of the sun, and they begin to show color, health
When in London, some years
I visited an establishment which had ac- a g o , quired a wide reputation for the cure of those diseases in which prostration and nervous de- rangement were prominent symptoms. I soon found the secret of success in the use made of sunshine. The slate roof had been removed and a glass one substituted. The upper story was divided into sixteen small rooms, each provided
feelings of others. Instead of relieving the pas- sions, as some declare, it only strengthens it by giving it expression. If it be urged that it is a habit difficult to be broken, this is a confession that disregard of right has become a settled part of the character. No boy old enough to know the meaning of words, utters his first oath with- out a shudder; and if by repetition he is able to swear without compunction, it is not that the sin is less, but because his own sense of right
u n t e d
e c r i m e a n
are the same. But the habit can be subdued. Scarcely aboyor man will useprofanltyin the pres- ence of his mother; then, if he will he can restrain it at other times. Let every boy respect himself too much to yield to this habit, but rebuke pro- fanity whenever heard by expressive silence and
a good example, if not by words.
GOOD LUCK.—Some young men talk about luck. Good luck is to get up at six o'clock in the morning; good luck, if you have only a shil- ling a week, is to live upon eleven pence and save a penny; good luck is to trouble your head with
with lounges, washing apparatus, etc. Theyourown business, and letyour neighbor's alone; patient, on entering each his little apartment, good luck is to fulfil the commandments, and to removed all his clothing, and exposed himself do unto other people as we wish them to do to the direct rays of the sun. Lying on the unto us. T,hey must not only work, but wait lounge and turning over from time to time, each They must plod and persevere. Pence must and every part of the body was thus exposed to be taken care of, because they are the seeds of the life-giving rays of the sun. Several L*ndon guineas. To get on in the world, they must physicians candidly confessed to me that many take care of home, sweep their own door-ways
cases which seemed only waiting for the shroud were galvanized into life and health by this pro cesa.—Dr. Dio Lewis.
clean, try to help other people, avoid tempta- tion, and have faith in truth and God.
DEPTH OF COAL BEDS.—Heath's mine in Vir- ginia is represented to contain a coal bed of fifty feet in thickness. A coal bed near Wikesbarre, Pa., is said to be twenty-five feet thick; and in the basin of the Schuylkill are forty alternate seams of coal, twenty-five of which are more than three feet in thickness. In Novia Scotia is a coal formation 1,400 feet deep, and containing seventy-five alternate layers of coal. The White- haven coal mine in England has been worked nnder the sea; and the New Castle coal mine, in the same country, has been worked to a depth of 1,500 feet, and bored to a similar depth, without finding the bottom of the coal measure.
ADVICE FOB BoTg.—"You are made to be kind, generous and magnanimous, says Horace Mann. If there is a boy in school who has a club-foot, don't let him know you ever saw i t Tf there is a boy with ragged clothes, don't talk about rags in his hearing. If there is a lame boy.assign him some part of the game which does not require much running. If there is a dull
one, help him to get his lesson."
THERE is no whet to the appetite like grass ind wild flowers wet with dew andjtaken with a fasting eye at five in the morning. It was Adam's own salad, and that's why he lived to nine hundred and thirty.