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and/or were tolerant of corruption within the Force. Some of the corrupt practices that have become endemic include:

Payoffs for road traffic offences

Sale of gun licenses

Sale of ammunition

Dropping charges, including serious offences

Advising criminals of planned police interdiction

Not turning up to give evidence in court

Not recording reported crimes to avoid having to investigate

Planting evidence

Stealing evidence or arranging its “disappearance”

Stealing the seizures of raids (narcotics, money, weapons, etc.)

Providing bodyguard service for dons and other questionable characters

Providing escort for illegal drugs

Evidence-tampering – switching narcotics in storage

Removing evidence from crime scenes

Tampering with biological exhibits, e.g. urine samples

Subtle intimidation – conducting road traffic “checks” to intercept motorists and try to sell them tickets to police “fundraising” events

Theft of motor vehicle parts from vehicles in custody of police pound

Sale of favourable inspection reports for clubs, bars and other entities operating under Spirit Licence

Perjury to either secure or set aside convictions

Not recording crimes reported in order to falsify statistics

Extortion – sale of “protection”- providing security at construction sites and events (dances, etc.)

Contract killing or  “murder for hire”. With regard to the “root causes” identified above, we are referring to them as determinants of the homicide rate and rate of violent crime, not individual acts of homicide or violence. As rates are features of the society, they are explained in terms of other features of the society (that may be manipulated by public policy instruments).   For us a “root cause” is something that has a measurable independent effect on the rate of violent crime. To avoid confusion, determinant is perhaps a better word. The real point here is, however, that an effective crime control policy must treat with these determinants or root causes and the main facilitator of high end and organized crime, that is, corruption.  Public resources are scarce and thus it is very important for policy, programme and even project success that the coordination and sequencing of any response is unified by a common strategy.  For example, programmes aimed at reducing youth unemployment and transforming the inner-city communities may be counterproductive and serve to empower the networks of organized crime that

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