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  • Radioactive isotopes can have

  • beneficial uses

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • Electrons

  • orbit nucleus of atom

  • arrangement in orbits is key to chemical behavior of atom

  • vary in amount of energy they possess

  • farther nucleus, greater its energy

Figure 2.9 Energy levels of an atom’s electrons (Biology, 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • electrons are far from nucleus

  • analogy:

  • result

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • electrons in atom occur only at certain energy levels

  • called electron shells (or electron energy levels)

  • atoms may have 1, 2 or more electron shells

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • first four electron energy shells

  • covers most biologically significant elements

  • first, innermost energy shell

    • can accommodate only 2 electrons

  • second, third, fourth energy shells

  • can each accommodate 8 electrons

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