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Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • atom has # of electron shells needed accommodate its number of electrons

    • atom with 6 electrons (C) has 2 shells

      • 2 electrons in innermost shell

      • 4 electrons in outermost shell

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  • atom with 11 electrons (Na) has 3

    • 2 electrons in innermost shell

    • 8 electrons in second shell

    • 1 electron in outermost shell

Figure 2.11 Electron orbitals ((Biology, 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • Energy

    • required to keep electrons in their orbits

      • electrons have potential energy of position

      • more potential energy in outermost shells than in innermost shells

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Figure 2.9 Energy levels of an atom’s electrons (Biology, 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

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Web/CD Activity 2C: Electron Arrangement

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Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

number of electrons in outermost shell – determines chemical properties of element

  • partially full outer shells = reactive

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  • full outer shells = unreactive (inert)

Atoms & Molecules - Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom

  • example

  • hydrogen (H) is highly reactive

    • one shell, only one electrons

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