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Covalent Bonds

Atoms & Molecules - Covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons, joins atoms into molecules

  • covalent bond energy

    • forming bond requires input of energy

      • energy is stored in bond

    • breaking bond results in release of energy

      • released energy becomes available to do work

Atoms & Molecules - Covalent bonds, polar versus non-polar

  • Atoms in a covalently bonded molecule

  • in tug-of-war for shared electrons

  • electronegativity

  • measure of attraction (affinity) for shared electrons in covalent bond

    • stronger electronegativity = stronger pull on shared electron

Atoms & Molecules - Chemical bonds

  • strong chemical bonds

    • ionic bonds

    • covalent bonds

      • nonpolar covalent bonds

      • polar covalent bonds

  • weak chemical bonds

    • hydrogen bonds

Atoms & Molecules - Covalent bonds, polar versus non-polar

  • Because of concept of electronegativity,

    • covalent bonds can be divided into two categories

      • nonpolar covalent bonds

      • polar covalent bonds

Atoms & Molecules - Covalent bonds, polar versus non-polar

nonpolar covalent bond – covalent bond between atoms with similar electronegativity – result, electrons are shared equally between two atoms – examples • O2 • H2 C H 4 ( m e t h a n e ) Figure 2.12 Covalent bonding in four molecules (Biology, 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

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