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101

Atoms & Molecules - Chemical bonds

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  • strong chemical bonds

    • ionic bonds

    • covalent bonds

      • nonpolar covalent bonds

      • polar covalent bonds

  • weak chemical bonds

    • hydrogen bonds

Atoms & Molecules - Covalent bonds, polar versus non-polar

  • polar covalent bond

    • a covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity

      • atom with greater electonegativity pulls shared electrons closer

    • results in bond has two dissimilar ends

      • “poles”, with partial + and partial - charges

    • resulting molecules are said to be “polar”

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e x a m p l e = H 2 O Figure 2.13 Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule (Biolog , 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

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Web/CD Activity 2F: Nonpolar and Polar Molecules

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Atoms & Molecules - Chemical bonds

strong chemical bonds – ionic bonds – covalent bonds • nonpolar covalent bonds • polar covalent bonds weak chemical bonds

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  • hydrogen bonds

Atoms & Molecules - Hydrogen bonds

  • hydrogen bonds

    • result when polar molecules interact with one another

    • partial – charge of one molecule is attracted to the partial + charge of another molecule

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  • in the case of water:

  • oxygen is very electronegative

Figure 2.16 A hydrogen bond (Biology, 6th Ed., Campbell & Reece)

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