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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

        • (1)

          Most commonly bacterial

        • (2)

          May also be viral or fungal

      • c)

        May cause alveolar collapse (atelectasis)

      • d)

        Localized inflammation/ infection may become systemic, leading to sepsis and septic shock

      • e)

        Community acquired versus hospital acquired

    • 3.

      Assessment findings

      • a)

        Typical pneumonia

        • (1)

          Acute onset of fever and chills

        • (2)

          Cough productive of purulent sputum

        • (3)

          Pleuritic chest pain (in some cases)

        • (4)

          Pulmonary consolidation on auscultation

        • (5)

          Location of bronchial breath sounds

        • (6)

          Rales

        • (7)

          Egophony

      • b)

        Atypical pneumonia

        • (1)

          Non-productive cough

        • (2)

          Extra-pulmonary symptoms

        • (3)

          Headache

        • (4)

          Myalagias

        • (5)

          Fatigue

        • (6)

          Sore throat

        • (7)

          Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

        • (8)

          Fever and chills

    • 4.

      Management

      • a)

        Airway and ventilation

        • (1)

          Intubation may be required

        • (2)

          Assisted ventilation as necessary

        • (3)

          High flow oxygen

      • b)

        Circulation

        • (1)

          Intravenous access

        • (2)

          Administration of IV fluids

        • (3)

          Improve hydration

        • (4)

          Thin and mobilize mucous

      • c)

        Pharmacological

        • (1)

          Bronchodilators may be required if airway obstruction is severe or if the patient has accompanying obstructive lung disease

        • (2)

          Antibiotic therapy by prescription

        • (3)

          Antipyretics

      • d)

        Non-pharmacological

        • (1)

          Cool if high fever

      • e)

        Transport considerations

        • (1)

          Elderly, over 65 years

          • (a)

            Significant co-morbidity

          • (b)

            Inability to take oral medications

          • (c)

            Support complications

          • (d)

            Appropriate facility

      • f)

        Psychological support/ communication strategies

  • D.

    Pulmonary edema

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───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administrati

on

Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

19

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