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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

      • (2)

        5% of sudden deaths

    • b)

      Mortality/ morbidity

      • (1)

        Less than 10% of pulmonary emboli result in death

    • c)

      Risk factors

      • (1)

        Recent surgery

      • (2)

        Pregnancy

      • (3)

        Oral contraceptives

      • (4)

        Infection

      • (5)

        Cancer

      • (6)

        Sickle cell anemia

      • (7)

        Long bone fractures

      • (8)

        Prolonged inactivity

      • (9)

        Bedridden patients

    • d)

      Prevention strategies

  • 2.

    Anatomy and physiology review

    • a)

      Deep veins in lower legs

    • b)

      Venous system

    • c)

      Coagulation of blood

    • d)

      Role of venous stasis

    • e)

      Venous wall injury

    • f)

      Venous valves

    • g)

      Pulmonary vasculature

    • h)

      Ventilation-perfusion mismatch

  • 3.

    Pathophysiology

    • a)

      Perfusion disorder

    • b)

      Deep vein stasis

    • c)

      Injury to view wall

    • d)

      Hypercoagulability

    • e)

      Platelet aggregation

    • f)

      Embolism size

    • g)

      Embolism location in the legs

    • h)

      Embolism location in the lungs

    • i)

      Complete loss of perfusion in some area of lungs

    • j)

      Other causes of pulmonary circulation obstruction

      • (1)

        Air

      • (2)

        Fat

      • (3)

        Foreign objects

      • (4)

        Venous catheters

      • (5)

        Amniotic fluid

  • 4.

    Assessment findings - depend on size of the clot

    • a)

      Evidence of significant life-threatening embolus in a proximal location

      • (1)

        Altered mentation

      • (2)

        Severe cyanosis

      • (3)

        Profound hypotension

      • (4)

        Cardiac arrest

    • b)

      Chief complaint

      • (1)

        Chest pain

      • (2)

        Dyspnea

      • (3)

        Cough (typically non-productive)

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───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

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