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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

function (such as HIV)

  • c)

    Risk factors

    • (1)

      Avoidance of exposure is nearly impossible because of the prevalence of causative agents

    • (2)

      Severity increases in patients with underlying pulmonary conditions

  • d)

    Prevention strategies

    • (1)

      Handwashing and covering the mouth during sneezing and coughing are essential in preventing spread

2.

Anatomy and physiology review

  • a)

    Nasopharynx

  • b)

    Oropharynx

  • c)

    Paranasal sinus

  • d)

    Inner ear

  • e)

    Middle ear

  • f)

    Outer ear

  • g)

    Eustachian tubes

  • h)

    Epiglottis

  • i)

    Respiratory epithelium

  • j)

    Lymphatic system

  • k)

    Secretory antibody IgA

3.

4.

Pathophysiology

  • a)

    A variety of bacteria and virus cause URI

  • b)

    20-30% are Group A streptococci

  • c)

    50% of pharyngitis have no demonstrated bacterial or viral cause

  • d)

    Most are self-limiting diseases

Assessment findings

  • a)

    Chief complaints

    • (1)

      Sore throat

    • (2)

      Fever

    • (3)

      Chills

    • (4)

      Headache

  • b)

    Physical findings

    • (1)

      Cervical adenopathy

    • (2)

      Erthyematous pharynx

    • (3)

      Positive throat culture

5.

Management

a)

Airway and ventilation

b)

  • (1)

    Typically no intervention required

  • (2)

    Oxygen administration may be appropriate in patients with underlying pulmonary conditions (administer based on symptoms and pulse oximetry)

Pharmacological

  • (1)

    Out-of-hospital care is symptomatic, and based in part on the presence of underlying pulmonary conditions

  • (2)

    Interventions which may be appropriate include

    • (a)

      Bronchodilators

    • (b)

      Continuation of prescribed antibiotics

c)

(c) Cortic Non-pharmacological

osteroid

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───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

25

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