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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

      • d)

        Transport considerations

        • (1)

          Appropriate mode

        • (2)

          Appropriate facility

      • e)

        Psychological support/ communication strategies

        • (1)

          Collected throat cultures require family notification of results and follow- up care

  • H.

    Spontaneous pneumothorax

    • 1.

      Epidemiology

      • a)

        Incidence

        • (1)

          18 per 100,000

      • b)

        Morbidity/ mortality

        • (1)

          15-20% partial pneumothorax may be well tolerated

      • c)

        Risk factors

        • (1)

          Males

        • (2)

          Younger age

        • (3)

          Thin body mass

        • (4)

          History of COPD (secondary spontaneous pneumothorax)

    • 2.

      Assessment findings

      • a)

        Chief complaint

        • (1)

          Shortness of breath

        • (2)

          Chest pain

        • (3)

          Sudden onset

      • b)

        Physical findings

        • (1)

          Typically minor

          • (a)

            Pallor

          • (b)

            Diaphoresis

          • (c)

            Tachypnea

        • (2)

          Severe

          • (a)

            Altered mentation

          • (b)

            Cyanosis

          • (c)

            Tachycardia

          • (d)

            Decreased breath sounds

          • (e)

            Local hyperresonance to percussion

          • (f)

            Subcutaneous emphysema

    • 3.

      Management

      • a)

        Airway and ventilation

        • (1)

          Intubation as required

        • (2)

          Assisted ventilation if necessary

        • (3)

          Oxygen - administration levels based on symptoms and pulse oximetry

      • b)

        Circulation

        • (1)

          IV initiation if severe symptoms present

      • c)

        Pharmacological

        • (1)

          Not typically necessary; treat symptomatically

      • d)

        Non-pharmacological

        • (1)

          Position of comfort/ best ventilation

      • e)

        Transport considerations

        • (1)

          Appropriate mode

        • (2)

          Appropriate facility

      • f)

        Psychological support/ communication strategies

───────────

────────

────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

26

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