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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

  • I.

    Hyperventilation syndrome

    • 1.

      Multiple causes

      • a)

        Hypoxia

      • b)

        High altitude

      • c)

        Pulmonary disease

      • d)

        Pulmonary disorders

      • e)

        Pneumonia

      • f)

        Interstitial pneumonitis, fibrosis, edema

      • g)

        Pulmonary emboli, vascular disease

      • h)

        Bronchial asthma

      • i)

        Cardiovascular disorders

      • j)

        Congestive heart failure

      • k)

        Hypotension

      • l)

        Metabolic disorders

      • m)

        Acidosis

      • n)

        Hepatic failure

      • o)

        Neurologic disorders

      • p)

        Psychogenic or anxiety hypertension

      • q)

        Central nervous system infection, tumors

      • r)

        Drug-induced

      • s)

        Salicylate

      • t)

        Methylxanthine derivatives

      • u)

        Beta-adrenergic agonists

      • v)

        Progesterone

      • w)

        Fever, sepsis

      • x)

        Pain

      • y)

        Pregnancy

    • 2.

      Assessment findings

      • a)

        Chief complaint

        • (1)

          Dyspnea

        • (2)

          Chest pain

        • (3)

          Other symptoms based on etiology

        • (4)

          Carpopedal spasm

      • b)

        Physical findings

        • (1)

          Rapid breath with high minute volume

        • (2)

          Varying depending on cause of syndrome

        • (3)

          Carpopedal spasms

    • 3.

      Pathophysiology

      • a)

        Depends on cause of syndrome

    • 4.

      Management

      • a)

        Depends on cause of syndrome, discussed elsewhere

        • (1)

          Airway and ventilation

          • (a)

            Oxygen - rate of administration based on symptoms and pulse oximetry

        • (2)

          If anxiety hyperventilation is confirmed (especially based on patient=s prior history) coached ventilation/ rebreathing techniques might be considered

      • b)

        Circulation

        • (1)

          Intervention rarely required

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───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

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