Cardiology: 2 ════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════ ══════════════════════════
infarction. (C-1) 5-2.76 Identify the anticipated clinical presentation of a patient with a suspected acute myocardial infarction. (C-3) 5-2.77 Differentiate the characteristics of the pain/ discomfort occurring in angina pectoris and acute myocardial
infarction. (C-2) 5-2.78 Identify the ECG changes characteristically seen during evolution of an acute myocardial infarction. (C-2) 5-2.79 Identify the most common complications of an acute myocardial infarction. (C-3) 5-2.80 List the characteristics of a patient eligible for thrombolytic therapy. (C-2) 5-2.81 Describe the "window of opportunity" as it pertains to reperfusion of a myocardial injury or infarction. (C-3) 5-2.82 Based on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of the patient with a suspected acute myocardial
infarction, list the anticipated clinical problems according to their life-threatening potential. (C-3) 5-2.83 Specify the measures that may be taken to prevent or minimize complications in the patient suspected of
myocardial infarction. (C-3) 5-2.84 Describe the most commonly used cardiac drugs in terms of therapeutic effect and dosages, routes of
administration, side effects and toxic effects. (C-3) 5-2.85 Describe the epidemiology, morbidity and mortality of heart failure. (C-1) 5-2.86 Define the principle causes and terminology associated with heart failure. (C-1) 5-2.87 Identify the factors that may precipitate or aggravate heart failure. (C-3) 5-2.88 Describe the physiological effects of heart failure. (C-2) 5-2.89 Define the term "acute pulmonary edema" and describe its relationship to left ventricular failure. (C-3) 5-2.90 Define preload, afterload and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and relate each to the pathophysiology
of heart failure. (C-3) 5-2.91 Differentiate between early and late signs and symptoms of left ventricular failure and those of right
ventricular failure. (C-3) 5-2.92 Explain the clinical significance of paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. (C-1) 5-2.93 Explain the clinical significance of edema of the extremities and sacrum. (C-1) 5-2.94 List the interventions prescribed for the patient in acute congestive heart failure. (C-2) 5-2.95 Describe the most commonly used pharmacological agents in the management of congestive heart failure
in terms of therapeutic effect, dosages, routes of administration, side effects and toxic effects. (C-1) 5-2.96 Define the term "cardiac tamponade". (C-1) 5-2.97 List the mechanisms by which cardiac tamponade may be produced by traumatic and non-traumatic
events. (C-2) 5-2.98 Identify the limiting factor of pericardial anatomy that determines intrapericardiac pressure. (C-1) 5-2.99 Identify the clinical criteria specific to cardiac tamponade. (C-2) 5-2.100 Describe how to determine if pulsus paradoxus, pulsus alternans or electrical alternans is present. (C-2) 5-2.101 Identify the paramedic responsibilities associated with management of a patient with cardiac tamponade.
5-2.102 5-2.103 5-2.104 5-2.105 5-2.106 5-2.107 5-2.108
Describe the incidence, morbidity and mortality of hypertensive emergencies. (C-1) Define the term "hypertensive emergency". (C-1) Identify the characteristics of the patient population at risk for developing a hypertensive emergency. (C-1) Explain the essential pathophysiological defect of hypertension in terms of Starling's law of the heart. (C-3) Identify the progressive vascular changes associate with sustained hypertension. (C-1) Describe the clinical features of the patient in a hypertensive emergency. (C-3) Rank the clinical problems of patients in hypertensive emergencies according to their sense of urgency.
(C-3) 5-2.109 From the priority of clinical problems identified, state the management responsibilities for the patient with a hypertensive emergency. (C-2) 5-2.110 Identify the drugs of choice for hypertensive emergencies, rationale for use, clinical precautions and disadvantages of selected antihypertensive agents. (C-3)
────────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum