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Medical: 5 Pulmonary: 1

(1)

(2)

(3)

The respiratory system functions as a gas exchange system 10,000 liters of air are filtered, warmed, humidified, and exchanged daily in adults Oxygen is diffused into the bloodstream for use in cellular metabolism by the body=s 100

(4)

trillion cells Wastes, including

excreted from

the

carbon dioxide, are body via the respiratory

b)

system Physiology (1) Ventilation

(a)

Ventilation refers to the process of air

(b)

movement in and out of the lungs In order for ventilation to occur, the

following functions must be intact

(i)

Neurologic

control

(brainstem)

needs to initiate inspiration (ii) Nerves between the brainstem and

the muscles of respiration (diaphragm & intercostals) need to be intact and undamaged

  • (iii)

    Diaphragm and intercostal muscles must be functional and non- traumatized

  • (iv)

    Upper airways must be intact and

(v)

patent Lower airways

must

be

intact

and

patent (vi) The alveoli must be intact and non-

collapsed

    • (c)

      Emergent intervention for ventilation problems includes

      • (i)

        Opening the upper and lower airways

      • (ii)

        Providing assisted ventilation

  • (2)

    Diffusion

    • (a)

      Diffusion refers to the process of gas exchange between the air-filled alveoli and the pulmonary capillary bed

    • (b)

      Gas exchange is driven by simple diffusion - gases from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration (gas exchange continues

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───────────────────────── United States Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Paramedic: National Standard Curriculum

4

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