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or the time of the trial. The mental incapacity defences available in England and Wales are insanity, unfitness to plead, infanticide, diminished responsibility, intoxication and automatism. I argue that mental incapacity defences provide an important insight into the modern conceptualization of criminal responsibility. Further, I argue that responsibility must be understood not only through the elite discourses of law and medicine and psychiatry, and their interaction, but also by taking into account lay understandings of ‘insane’ behaviour.


Taking Recovery Seriously

Michael McCubbin.  Nursing Sciences, Université Laval; Quebec Health Research Fund Scholar

To Dynamically Integrate Power and Empowerment, Social Inclusion, and Recovery: A Systemic, Teleological Approach

Reformers – prodded and encouraged by user advocates and activists – have brought to emerging community mental health systems new approaches as ostensible principles for practice, policy, and, to a much lesser degree, governance. These orientations – including social inclusion, empowerment and more recently “recovery”, touch on different aspects of what makes a healthy and just social response to psychological distress. I will firstly contextualize empowerment in the emerging population health research showing the crucial role power plays in explaining the socioeconomic gradient with health. Oppression indeed creates sickness, whether physical or psychological. I will then describe the concept of social inclusion as I understand it and as a much better alternative to “social integration” and “normalization”, both of which can imply “fitting into the mould”. Finally, I will describe, in reference to my research projects, my understanding of recovery as emerging in large part from, and in mutual interaction with, empowerment, social inclusion and primordially, the evolving visions and aspirations of persons recovering – as such, in a systemic, teleological process. I hope this presentation will foster reflection and enthusiasm necessary to the advancement of these concepts which, when not operationalized, can be easily co-opted.

Helen P. Hamer.  Nursing, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Mental Health Service Users as Citizens in a Recovery Paradigm: The Implications for Mental Health Nursing Practice

This qualitative doctoral study aims to explore the journey towards citizenship and full participation in society for people who are recovering from serious mental illness, and the implications for mental health nursing practice.  This study will generate

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