and the remaining two stem cell lines were still under investigation.9 On December 29, 2005, Seoul National University stated that the remaining stem cell lines were not patient-matched and were not derived through cloning.10 On January 10, 2006, SNU stated that results of the 2004 paper, which reported the first derivation of stem cells from a cloned human embryo, were also a deliberate fabrication. 11
Cloning Attempts in the United Kingdom and United States. Scientists in the United Kingdom, at the University of Newcastle and the University of Edinburgh, and scientists in the United States, at Harvard University, Advanced Cell Technology and the University of California in San Francisco, are working on deriving patient-matched stem cells from cloned human embryos. 12
In the United Kingdom, scientists performing human cloning and embryonic stem cell research are regulated by the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission from HFEA to start therapeutic cloning experiments in August 2004.13 In May 2005, the team announced that it had created a cloned human embryo but has not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh also is seeking permission from HFEA to begin working on SCNT experiments using human embryos.
Scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute intend to produce cloned human embryos for research studies on juvenile diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, and several other diseases.14 In November 2003, the research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public policy experts. Preliminary permission to proceed with the research was granted in January 2005, provided that a number of specific restrictions were followed and approval was received from a second committee charged with safeguarding the use of human subjects in research.15 The restrictions include limitations on the developmental age of the cloned embryos used in experiments, a prohibition on reproductive cloning, and a limitation on paying only
9 Rick Weiss, “Korean Stem Cell Lines Faked,” The Washington Post, December 23, 2005, p. A1.
10 Choe San-Hun, “Panel further discredits Stem Cell Work of South Korean Scientist,” The New York Times, Dec. 29, 2005, p. 9.
11 Nicholas Wade and Choe Sang-Hun, “Researcher Faked Evidence of Human Cloning, Koreans Report,” The New York Times, Jan. 10, 2006, p. A1.
12 Dennis Normile, Gretchen Vogel, and Constance Holden, “Cloning Researcher Says Work is Flawed but Claims Results Stand,” Science, Dec. 23, 2005, p. 1886-1887; Carl T. Hall, “UCSF Resumes Human Embryo Stem Cell Work,” The San Francisco Chronicle, May 6, 2006, p. A.1.
Emily Singer, “Stem Cells Reborn,” Technology Review, May/June, 2006, p. 58-65.
14 Gareth Cook, “Harvard Team Wants OK to Clone; Human-Cell Work Would Be First in Nation,” Boston Globe, Oct. 13, 2004, p. A1.
Gareth Cook, “Harvard Provost OKs Procedure,” Boston Globe, Mar. 20, 2005, p, A29.