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The Development of Negation in Early Child Language Roy D. Pea (1980) - page 40 / 52

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Pea looked at topic initiation: Adult-initiated negatives are those the child produces after a preceding adult utterance. Self-initiated negatives are those not adjacent to adult speech but are spontaneously used.

Findings for self vs. adult initiated negation: 40% of the total negatives produced by 4 of the children were initiated by the child.

Therefore, the child made negative comments on his/her own when objects disappeared, toys didn’t work, things were found in unexpected places and self-prohibition.

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