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The Development of Negation in Early Child Language Roy D. Pea (1980) - page 41 / 52

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Individual differences result due to variations.

Example:

CS’ mother was prohibitive and constraining. 20% of CS’ negatives were self-initiated.

37% expressed rejection

26% expressed disappearance

72% of JK’s negatives were produced spontaneously

Mother encouraged independent play.

58% were comments on disappearance

7% expressed rejection

40% of CB and RT’s negatives were self-initiated.

Consequence of these differences is the range of the different meanings of negation.

The social environment for negation provided by the adults can also affect the meanings of negation the child uses to express.

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