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EXTRACTION OF ANTIOXIDANT COMPOUNDS FROM RED PITAYA USING SOXHLET EXTRACTION METHOD - page 21 / 24

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Nutritious

Weight

Water

80-90g

Carbohydrates

9-14g

Protein

0.2-0.5g

Fat

0.1-0.6g

Fiber

0.3-0.9g

Ash

0.4-0.7g

Calories

35-50g

Calcium

6-10g

Iron

0.3-0.7mg

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

0.2-0.45mg

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)

4-25mg

Carotene (Vitamin A)

traces

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

traces

Table 2.1: Typical nutritional value

per 100g of raw pitaya (Ariffin, 2008)

9

2.2

Antioxidant

2.2.1

Definition

Antioxidant is a molecule that capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols or polyphenols (en.wikipedia.org).

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