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NH; King County, WA; Lawrence-Douglas County, KS; Lincoln, NE; Louisville, KY (metro- politan area); Massachusetts (state); Minneapolis, MN; New Haven, CT; Oakland, CA; Philadel- phia, PA; Pittsburgh, PA; Portage, OH; Portland, OR; San Antonio, TX; San Diego, CA; San Jose, CA; San Mateo County, CA; Santa Clara County, CA; Seattle, WA; Tulare County, CA; and Vancouver, WA.

  • 22.

    Elderly and disabled residents are not subject to these changes.

  • 23.

    The Department of Labor maintains a current list of minimum wage laws in each state at http:// www.dol.gov/esa/minwage/america.htm.

  • 24.

    The first such ordinance was passed in Mont- gomery County, Maryland, in the mid-1970s. Today, around 5 percent of the U.S. population lives in communities that require affordable housing to be built in any new development. Over 100 of these localities are in California, with most of the others clustered around Boston and Washington, D.C.

  • 25.

    The FY 2004 budget for the ROSS program provided $16 million for services for families, $11.4 million for services for the elderly and persons with disabilities, $13.2 million for services

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POLICY

PRIMER

to promote home ownership, and $16 million for FSS coordinators to serve public housing residents.

  • 26.

    Solomon (2005), 47. Also see http://www.hud. gov/offices/pih/programs/ph/ross/about.cfm.

  • 27.

    For a more complete explanation of the Gautreaux and MTO experiments and discus- sion of their differing results, see Turner and Briggs (2008).

  • 28.

    Mother’s mental health is a critical determinant of healthy development for young children (Hayes et al. 2001; Martins and Gaffan 2000; Olfson et al. 2003). Thus, it is possible that improvements in mental health among mothers and adolescent girls will translate into significantly improved child well-being over the long term.

  • 29.

    See Child Welfare League of America, “Family Unification Program FAQ,” http://www.cwla. org/PROGRAMS/HOUSING/FUPfaq.htm (accessed August 2008).

  • 30.

    This isolation was intensified by federal poli- cies that targeted scarce public housing resources to the neediest households on the waiting list, significantly reducing the number of moderate- income working families living in public housing.

  • 31.

    See http://www.greencommunitiesonline.org.

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